EENY-443, a 7-page fact sheet by Wai-Han Chan and Phillip E. Kaufman, is part of the Featured Creatures Collection. It describes this tick commonly found on dogs as an adult — its distribution, description, life cycle, seasonality, medical and veterinary importance, removal, and management. Includes references. Published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, November 2008.
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Fasulo TR. (2002). Fleas and Ticks. Bug Tutorials http://pests.ifas.ufl.edu/software/det_bugs.htm. University of Florida/IFAS. CD-ROM. SW 159.
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McEnroe, W.D. 1979b. The effect of the temperature regime on Dermacentor variabilis (Say) populations in eastern North America. Acarologia 20: 58-67.
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Parsons GL, Rossignol PA. 1989. Identifying adult hard ticks commonly found on humans in Oregon. EM8410. Oregon State University Extension Service.
Piesman J, Gage KL. 1996. Ticks and mites and the agents they transmit. The Biology of Disease Vectors. Beaty BJ, Marquardt WC (editors). pp. 160-174. University Press of Colorado. Newot, CO.
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U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM). 2003. Entomological Sciences Program. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5403.