A Mosquito Psorophora ciliata (Fabricius) (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)
An adult female Psorophora ciliata.
view on EDIS

How to Cite

Ragasa, Ephraim V., and Phillip E. Kaufman. 2013. “A Mosquito Psorophora Ciliata (Fabricius) (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae): EENY540/IN967, 10/2012”. EDIS 2013 (1). Gainesville, FL. https://doi.org/10.32473/edis-in967-2012.


Psorophora ciliata (Fabricius) is a large mosquito that has developed an outsized reputation because of its relatively intimidating heft and persistent biting behavior, including anecdotal historical accounts of its legendary aggressiveness and ‘frightening appearance’. This 6-page fact sheet was written by Ephraim V. Ragasa and Phillip E. Kaufman and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, October 2012.


view on EDIS


Ali A, Nayar JK, Knight JW, Stanley BH. 1989. Attraction of Florida mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to artificial light in the field. Annual Conference of the California Mosquito and Vector Control Association 57: 82-88.

Barreto M, Burbano ME, Suarez M, Barreto P. 1996. Psorophora ciliata y otros mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en Yolombó, Antioquia, Colombia. Colombia Médica 27: 62-65.

Bentley MT, Kaufman PE, Kline DL, Hogsette JA. 2009. Response of adult mosquitoes to light-emitting diodes placed in resting boxes and in the field. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 25: 285-291. https://doi.org/10.2987/08-5815.1

Breeland SG, Snow WE, Pickard E. 1961. Mosquitoes of the Tennessee Valley. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 36: 249-319.

Breeland SG, Pickard E. 1963. Life history studies on artificially produced broods of floodwater mosquitoes in the Tennessee Valley. Mosquito News 23: 75-85.

Campos RE, Fernandez LA, Sy VE. 2004. Study of the insects associated with the floodwater mosquito Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and their possible predators in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Hydrobiologia 524: 91-102. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:HYDR.0000036122.10578.d0

Carpenter SJ, LaCasse WJ. 1955. Mosquitoes of North America (North of Mexico). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 488 pp.

CDC. (2011). Mosquito species producing WNV positive by year. (Last modified 30 April 2009). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. (24 August 2012)

Chamberlain RW, Sikes RK, Nelson DB, Sudia WD. 1954. Studies on the North American arthropod-borne encephalitides. VI. Quantitative determinations of virus-vector relationships. American Journal of Hygiene 60: 278-285. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a119721

Chow CC, Montgomery SP, O'Leary DR, Nasci RS, Campbell GL, Kipp AM, Lehman JA, Olson K, Collins P, Marfin AA. 2002. Provisional surveillance summary of the West Nile virus epidemic - United States, January - November 2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 51: 1129-1133.

Cutwa MM, O'Meara GF. 2005. Photographic guide to common mosquitoes of Florida. Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Vero Beach FL. 83 pp.

Darsie RF, Ward RA. 2005. Identification and Geographical Distribution of the Mosquitoes of North America, North of Mexico, 1st Edition. University Press of Florida. Gainesville, FL. 400 pp.

Edman JD. 1971. Host-feeding patterns of Florida mosquitoes I. Aedes, Coquillettidia, Mansonia and Psorophora. Journal of Medical Entomology 8: 687-695. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/8.6.687

ESA. (2012). Common Names of Insects Database, Family: Culicidae. Entomological Society of America. Lanham, MD. (24 August 2012)

Flanery D. 1897. Immunity from mosquito bites. Nature 56:53. https://doi.org/10.1038/056053a0

Foss KA, Deyrup LD. 2007. New record of Psorophora ciliata in Maine, United States. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 23: 476-477. https://doi.org/10.2987/5582.1

Gladney WJ, Turner Jr EC. 1969. The insects of Virginia: No. 2: Mosquitoes of Virginia (Diptera: Culicidae). Research Division Bulletin 49, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA. 28 pp.

Goddard J, Varnado WC, Harrison BA. 2009. An annotated list of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mississippi. Journal of Vector Ecology 35: 79-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2010.00062.x

Holck AR. 1988. Current status of the use of predators, pathogens and parasites for the control of mosquitoes. Florida Entomologist 71: 537-546. https://doi.org/10.2307/3495013

Horsfall WR, Miles RC, Sokatch JT. 1952. Eggs of floodwater mosquitoes. I. Species of Psorophora (Diptera: Culicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 45: 618-624. https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/45.4.618

Howard LO, Dyar HG, Knab F. 1917. The mosquitoes of North and Central America and the West Indies. Volume Four, Systematic Description (in two parts) Part II. The Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC. 550 pp.

ITIS. (2011). Psorophora ciliata (Fabricius, 1794). Integrated Taxonomic Information System, United States Geological Survey, Reston, VA. (24 August 2012)

King WV, Bradley GH, Smith CN, McDuffie WC. 1960. A handbook of the mosquitoes of the Southeastern United States. Agricultural Handbook No. 173. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. 192 pp.

McCann SM. (2006). Gallinipper? - Psorophora howardii. Bug Guide, Iowa State University, Ames, IA. (24 August 2012)

Means RG. 1987. Mosquitoes of New York. Part II. Genera of Culicidae other than Aedes occurring in New York. New York State Museum Bulletin 430b. The State Education Department, The University of the State of New York, Albany, NY. 180 pp.

Mercer DR, Sheeley SL, Brown EJ. 2005. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) development within microhabitats of an Iowa wetland. Journal of Medical Entomology 42: 685-693. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/42.4.685

Mitchell CJ, Monath TP, Sabattini MS, Daffne JF, Cropp CB, Calisher CH, Darsie Jr RF, Jakob WL. 1987. Arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes collected during and after the 1982-1983 epizootic of western equine encephalitis in Argentina. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 36: 107-113. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.1987.36.107

Ross HH. 1947. The mosquitoes of Illinois (Diptera, Culicidae). Bulletin of the Illinois Natural History Survey 24: 1-96. https://doi.org/10.21900/j.inhs.v24.195

Shalaby AM. 1957. The mouth parts of the larval instars of Psorophora ciliata (Fabricius). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt 41: 429-455.

Sudia WD, Newhouse VF, Beadle ID, Miller DL, Johnston Jr JG, Young R. Calisher CH, Maness K. 1975. Epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in North America in 1971: Vector studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 101: 17-35. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a112068

Unlu I, Kramer WL, Roy AF, Foil LD. 2010. Detection of West Nile virus RNA in mosquitoes and identification of blood meals collected at alligator farms in Louisiana. Journal of Medical Entomology 47: 625-633. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/47.4.625

Wagner VE, Efford, AC, Williams RL, Kirby JS, Grogan Jr WL. 2007. Mosquitoes associated with U.S. Department of Agriculture wetlands on Maryland's Delmarva Peninsula. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 23: 346-350. https://doi.org/10.2987/8756-971X(2007)23[346:MAWUDO]2.0.CO;2

Wallis RC, Whitman L. 1971. New collection records of Psorophora ciliata (Fabricius), Psorophora ferox (Humboldt) and Anopheles earlei Vargas in Connecticut (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 8: 336-337. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/8.3.336

Wozniak A, Dowda HE, Tolson MW, Karabatsos N, Vaughn DR, Turner PE, Ortiz DI, Wills W. 2001. Arbovirus surveillance in South Carolina 1996-98. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 17: 73-78.

Wood DM, Dang PT, Ellis RA. 1979. The insects and arachnids of Canada. Part 6. The mosquitoes of Canada, Diptera: Culicidae. Agriculture Canada, Hull, QC. 390 pp.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license.