Immature warble flies, or cattle grubs, infest and harm livestock throughout the world. Warble flies also are known as “heel flies” because they cause cattle to kick at themselves, and “gad flies” because they cause cattle to “gad about” in an attempt to evade the flies. Two species of cattle grubs occur in the U.S.A., the common cattle grub, and the northern cattle grub. This 6-page fact sheet was written by P. E. Kaufman and E. N. I. Weeks and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, March 2013.
Drummond, R. O., G. Lambert, H. E. Smalley, and C. E. Terrill. 1981. Estimated losses of livestock to pests, pp 111-127. In D. Pimentel (ed.), CRC Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture, Vol. 1. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
Drummond, R. O. 1984. Control of larvae of the common cattle grub (Diptera: Oestridae) with animal systemic insecticides. J. Econ. Entomol. 77: 402-406. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/77.2.402
Drummond, R. O., J. E. George, and S. E. Kunz. 1988. Control of arthropod pests of livestock: a review of technology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Glick, J. I. 1976. Infestation of native Florida cattle with the northern cattle grub, Hypoderma bovis (Diptera: Oestridae). Fla. Entomol. 59: 190. https://doi.org/10.2307/3493970
Hassan, M., M. N. Khan, M. Abubakar, H. M. Waheed, Z. Iqbal, and M. Hussain. 2010. Bovine hypodermosis - a global perspective. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 42: 1615-1625. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9634-y
Holste, J. E., D. D. Colwell, R. Kumar, J. E. Lloyd, N. P. M. Pinkall, M. A. Sierra, J. W. Waggoner, W. K. Langholff, R. A. Barrick, and J. S. Eagleson. 1998. Efficacy of eprinomectin against Hypoderma spp. in cattle. Am. J. Ver. Res. 59: 56-58.
Pruett, J. H., and S. E. Kunz. 1996. Development of resistance to Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae) within a cattle herd. J. Med. Entomol. 33: 49-52. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/33.1.49
Scholl, P. J., R. Hironaka, and J. Weintraub. 1988. Impact of cattle grub (Hypoderma spp.) (Diptera: Oestridae) infestations on performance of beef cattle. J. Econ. Entomol. 81: 246-250. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/81.1.246
Scholl P. J., and J. Weintraub. 1988. Gonotrophic development in Hypoderma lineatum and H. bovis (Diptera: Oestridae), with notes on reproductive capacity. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 81: 318-324. https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/81.2.318
Scholl, P. J. 1993. Biology and control of cattle grubs. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 39: 53-70. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.38.010193.000413
Scholl, P., E. P. Catts, and G. R. Mullen. 2009. Myiasis (Muscoidea, Oestroidea), pp. 309-336. In G. R. Mullen and L. A. Durden (eds.), Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 2nd ed. Elsevier Science, San Diego, CA.
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