This document provides an overview of juice-related foodborne outbreaks between 1922-2019. This information is useful to juice processors to aid in the identification of pertinent microorganisms, and also reviews locations, venues of juice preparations, and severity of juice-associated outbreaks.
Besser, R. E., S. M. Lett, J. T. Weber, M. P. Doyle, T. J. Barrett, J. G. Wells, and M. P. Griffin. 1993. "An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh-pressed apple cider." Journal of the American Medical Association 269: 2217-2220. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1993.03500170047032
Birkhead, G. S., D. L. Morse, W. C. Levine, J. K. Fudala, S. F. Kondracki, H. G. Chang, M. Shaydgani, L. Novick, and P. A. Blake. 1993. "Typhoid fever at a resort hotel in New York: A large outbreak with an unusual vehicle." Journal of Infectious Diseases 167: 1228-1232. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/167.5.1228
Blackburn, B. G., J. M. Mazurek, M. Hlavsa, J. Park, M. Tillapaw, M. Parrish, E. Salehi, W. Franks, E. Koch, F. Smith, L. Xiao, M. Arrowood, V. Hill, A. da Silva, S. Johnston, and J. L. Jones. 2006. "Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider." Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 684-686. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050796
Butler, M. E. 2000. "Salmonella outbreak leads to juice recall in Western states." Food Chemical News 42: 19-20.
Buzby, J. C., and S. R. Crutchfield. 1999. "New Juice Regulations Underway." Food Review. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/266215/files/FoodReview-218.pdf. Accessed August 7, 2018.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1975. "Salmonella typhimurium outbreak traced to a commercial apple cider-New Jersey." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 24: 87-88.
CDC. 1991. "Cholera associated with imported frozen coconut milk-Maryland." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 40: 843-844.
CDC. 1995. "Outbreak of Salmonella Hartford infections among travelers to Orlando, Florida." EPI-AID Trip Report 95-62.
CDC. 1996. "Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with drinking unpasteurized commercial apple juice-British Columbia, California, Colorado, and Washington, October 1996." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 45: 975.
CDC. 1997. "Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection and cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking unpasteurized apple cider-Connecticut and New York, October 1996." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 46: 4-8.
CDC. 1999. "Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Muenchen infections associated with unpasteurized orange juice-United States and Canada, June 1999." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48: 582-585.
CDC. 2006. "Botulism associated with commercial carrot juice-Georgia and Florida." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55: 1098-1099.
CDC. 2010. "Investigation Update: Multistate outbreak of human Typhoid Fever infections associated with frozen mamey pulp." http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/typhoidfever/index.html. Accessed August 7, 2018.
CDC. 2018. "National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)." https://www.cdc.gov/nors/index.html. Accessed October 25, 2019.
CFIA (Canadian Food Inspection Agency). 2014. "Food Recall Warning - Unpasteurized apple cider processed by Rolling Acres Cider Mill recalled due to E. coli O157:H7." https://web.archive.org/web/20181204022225/http://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/newsroom/food-recall-warnings/complete-listing/2014-10-30/eng/1414720185030/1414720197088. Accessed August 8, 2018.
Cody, S. H., K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, and D. J. Vugia. 1999. "An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice." Annals of Internal Medicine 130: 202-209. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-130-3-199902020-00005
Cook, K. A., T. E. Dobbs, W. G. Hlady, J. G. Wells, T. J. Barrett, N. D. Puhr, G. A. Lancette, D. W. Bodager, W. L. Toth, C. A. Genese, A. K. Highsmith, K. E. Pilot, L. Finelli, and D. L. Swerdlow. 1998. "Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Hartford infections associated with unpasteurized orange juice." Journal of the American Medical Association 280: 1504-1509. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.280.17.1504
de Noya, B., Z. Díaz-Bello, C. Colmenares, R. Ruiz-Guevara, L. Mauriello, R. Zavala-Jaspe, J. A. Suarez, T. Abate, L. Naranjo, M. Paiva, L. Rivas, J. Castro, J. Márques, I. Mendoza, H. Acquatella, J. Torres, and O. Noya. 2010. "Large urban outbreak of orally acquired acute Chagas disease at a school in Caracas, Venezuela." Journal of Infectious Disease 201: 1308-1315. https://doi.org/10.1086/651608
Duncan, T. G., J. A. Coull, E. R. Miller, and H. Bancroft. 1946. "Outbreak of typhoid fever with orange juice as the vehicle illustrating the value of immunization." American Journal of Public Health 36: 34-36. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.36.1.34
Eisenstein, A. B., R. D. Aach, W. Jacobson, and A. Goldman. 1963. "An epidemic of infectious hepatitis in a general hospital." Journal of the American Medical Association 185: 171-174. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1963.03060030029020
FDA (US Food and Drug Administration). Federal Register Proposed Rules - 63 FR 20449 April 24, 1998 - HACCP; Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary Processing and Importing of Juice; Food Labeling: Warning Notice Statements; Labeling of Juice Products. Federal Register: April 24, 1998 63: 20449-20486. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/1998/04/24/98-11025/hazard-analysis-and-critical-control-point-haccp-procedures-for-the-safe-and-sanitary-processing-and. Accessed August 7, 2018.
FDA. Federal Register Final Rule - 66 FR 6137, January 19, 2001: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP); Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary Processing and Importing of Juices. Federal Register: January 19, 2001 66: 6137-6202.
Frank, C., J. Walter, M. Muehlen, A. Jansen, U. van Treeck, A. M. Hauri, I. Zoellner, E. Schreier, O. Hamouda, and K. Stark. 2005. "Large outbreak of hepatitis A in tourists staying at a hotel in Hurghada, Egypt, 2004 - orange juice implicated." Eurosurveillance 10: 2720. https://doi.org/10.2807/esw.10.23.02720-en
INS DOH (Indiana State Department of Health). Summary of Special Disease Outbreak Investigations-1997, Appendix E. http://www.in.gov/isdh/21186.htm. Accessed October 5, 2011.
IDPH (Iowa Department of Public Health). 2014. Iowa surveillance of notifiable and other diseases: Annual report 2013. http://publications.iowa.gov/17797/1/IDPH_Annual_Rpt_2013.pdf. Accessed August 7, 2018.
Jain, S., S. A. Bidol, J. L. Austin, E. Berl, F. Elson, M. L. Williams, M. Deassy III, M. E. Moll, V. Rea, J. D. Vojdani, P. A. Yu, R. M. Hoekstra, C. R. Braden, and M. F. Lynch. 2009. "Multistate outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium and Saintpaul infections associated with unpasteurized orange juice-United States, 2005." Clinical Infectious Diseases 48: 1065-1071. https://doi.org/10.1086/597397
Katz, D. J., M. A. Cruz, M. J. Trepka, J. A. Sarez, P. D. Filrella, and R. M. Hammond. 2002. "An outbreak of typhoid fever in Florida associated with an imported fruit." Journal of Infectious Diseases 186: 234-239. https://doi.org/10.1086/341208
Krause, G., R. Terzagian, and R. Hammond. 2001. "Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Anatum infection associated with unpasteurized orange juice." Southern Medical Journal 94: 1168-1172. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007611-200194120-00009
Lester, R., T. Stewart, J. Carnie, S. Ng, and R. Taylor. 1991. "Air travel-associated gastroenteritis outbreak, August 1991." Communicable Disease Intelligence 15: 292-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(91)90124-V
LSDEPC (Laboratory Surveillance Data for Enteric Pathogens in Canada). "Annual summary 2005." https://web.archive.org/web/20141201115634/http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2007/phac-aspc/HP57-1-2005E.pdf. Accessed August 7, 2018.
Mihajlovic, B., B. Dixon, H. Couture, and J. Farber. 2013. "Qualitative microbiological risk assessment of unpasteurized fruit juice and cider." Int. Food Risk Anal. J. 3: 5. https://doi.org/10.5772/57161
Millard, P. S., K. F. Gensheimer, D. G. Addiss, D. M. Sosin, G. A. Beckett, A. Houck-Jankoski, and A. Hudson. 1994. "An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis from fresh-pressed apple cider." Journal of the American Medical Association 272: 1592-1596. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1994.03520200048034
MDH (Minnesota Department of Health). 2014. "Escherichia coli O157 infection and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), 2011." https://www.health.state.mn.us/diseases/reportable/dcn/sum11/ecoli.html. Accessed August 7, 2018.
National Centre for Disease Control/Communicable Diseases Network Australia New Zealand, Australian Department of Health and Aged Care. 1999. "Salmonellosis outbreak, South Australia." Communicable Diseases Intelligence 23 (3): 73.
Noël, H., A. Hofhuis, R. De Jonge, A. E. Heuvelink, A. De Jong, M. E. Heck, C. De Jager, and W. van Pelt. 2010. "Consumption of fresh fruit juice: How a healthy food practice caused a national outbreak of Salmonella Panama gastroenteritis." Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 7: 375-381. https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2009.0330
Paquet, P. 1923. "Épidémie de fièvre typhoïde: Déterminée par la consommation de petit citre." Revue d'Hygiène 45: 165-169.
Parish, M. E. 1998. "Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella serovars associated with a citrus-processing facility implicated in a salmonellosis outbreak." Journal of Food Protection 61: 280-284. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-61.3.280
Parish, M. 2000. "Relevancy of Salmonella and pathogenic E. coli to fruit juices. Proceedings IFU-Workshop 'Microbiology.'" Fruit Processing 10: 246-250.
Pereira, K. S., F. L. Schmidt, A. M. A. Guaraldo, R. M. B. Franco, V. L. Dias, and L. A. C. Passos. 2009. "Chagas' disease as a foodborne illness." Journal of Food Protection 72: 441-446. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-72.2.441
Schaffzin, J. K., F. Coronado, N. B. Dumas, T. P. Root, T. A. Halse, D. J. Schoonmaker-Bopp, M. M. Lurie, D. Nicholas, B. Gerzonich, G. S. Johnson, B. J. Wallace, and K. A. Musser. 2012. "Public health approach to detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: summary of two outbreaks and laboratory procedures." Emerging Infectious Diseases 140 (2): 283-289. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0950268811000719
Singh, B. R., S. B. Kulshreshtha, and K. N. Kapoor. 1995. "An orange juiceborne outbreak due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli." Journal of Food Science and Technology-India 34: 504-506.
Steele, B. T., N. Murphy, and C. P. Rance. 1982. "An outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with ingestion of fresh apple juice." Journal of Pediatrics 101: 963-966. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(82)80021-8
Tabershaw, I. R., L. L. Schmelzer, and H. B. Bruhn. 1967. "Gastroenteritis from an orange juice preparation." Archives of Environmental Health 15: 72-77. https://doi.org/10.1080/00039896.1967.10664878
Tamblyn, S., J. de Grosbois, D. Taylor, and J. Stratton. 1999. "An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with unpasteurized non-commercial, custom-pressed apple cider - Ontario, 1998." Canada Communicable Disease Report 25: 113-117; discussion 117-120.
Taylor, J. L., J. Tuttle, T. Pramukul, K. O'Brien, T. J. Barrett, B. Jolbaito, Y. L. Lim, D. J. Vugia, J. G. Morris, Jr., R. V. Tauxe, and D. M. Dwyer. 1993. "An outbreak of cholera in Maryland associated with imported commercial frozen fresh coconut milk." Journal of Infectious Diseases 167: 1330-1335. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/167.6.1330
Thurston, H., J. Stuart, B. McDonnell, S. Nicholas, and T. Cheasty. 1998. "Fresh orange juice implicated in an outbreak of Shigella flexneri among visitors to a South African game reserve." Journal of Infectious Diseases 36:350. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-4453(98)94927-1
Tsai, H.-C., S. Lee, C.-K. Huang, C.-M. Yen, E.-R. Chen, and Y.-C. Liu. 2004. "Outbreak of eosinophilic meningitis associated with drinking raw vegetable juice in southern Taiwan." American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 71: 222-226. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.222
Vojdani, J., L. Beuchat, and R. Tauxe. 2008. "Juice-associated outbreaks of human illness in the United States, 1995 through 2005." Journal of Food Protection 71 (2): 356-364. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-71.2.356