Koi Herpesvirus Disease (KHVD)
Koi with mottled gills and sunken eyes due to koi herpesvirus disease.
view on EDIS

How to Cite

Hartman, Kathleen H., Roy P. Yanong, Deborah B. Pouder, Barbara Denise Petty, Ruth Francis-Floyd, Allen C. Riggs, and Thomas B. Waltzek. 2013. “Koi Herpesvirus Disease (KHVD): VM149/VM113, 4/2013”. EDIS 2013 (5). Gainesville, FL. https://doi.org/10.32473/edis-vm113-2013.


Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is a highly contagious virus that causes significant morbidity and mortality in common carp varieties. Common carp is raised as a foodfish in many countries and has also been selectively bred for the ornamental fish industry where it is known as koi. The first recognized case of KHV occurred in the United Kingdom in 1996. Since then other cases have been confirmed in almost all countries that culture koi and/or common carp with the exception of Australia. This 9-page fact sheet is intended to inform veterinarians, biologists, fish producers and hobbyists about KHV disease. Written by Kathleen H. Hartman, Roy P.E. Yanong, Deborah B. Pouder, B. Denise Petty, Ruth Francis-Floyd, Allen C. Riggs, and Thomas B. Waltzek, and published by the UF Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, April 2013.


view on EDIS


Bergmann SM, Schutze H, Fischer U, Fichtner D, Riechardt M, Meyer K, Schrudde D, Kempter J. (2009b). "Detection of koi herpes virus (KHV) genome in apparently healthy fish." Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists. 29:145-152.

Costes B, Stalin Raj V, Michel B, Fournier G, Thirion M, Gillet L, Mast J, Lieffrig F, Bremont M, Vanderplasschen A. (2009). "The major portal of entry of koi herpesvirus in Cyprinus carpio is the skin." J Virol 83:2819-2830. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02305-08

Eide K, T Miller-Morgan, J Heidel, R Bildfell, L Jin. (2011). "Results of total DNA measurement in koi by tissue koi herpesvirus real-time PCR." Journal of Virological Methods 172:81-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2010.12.012

El-Matbouli M, Saleh M, Soliman H. (2007). "Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus type 3 in goldfish cohabiting with CyHV3-infected koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi)." Veterinary Record 161:792-793.

Gilad O, Yun S, Adkison MA, Way K, Willits NH, Bercovier H, Hedrick RP. (2003). "Molecular comparison of isolates of an emerging fish pathogen, koi herpesvirus, and the effect of water temperature on mortality of experimentally infected koi." J Gen Virol 84:2661-2668. https://doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.19323-0

Goodwin A. (2012). "Herpesviruses in Fish." Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) publication No. 4710, May 2012.

Haenen OLM, Way K, Bergmann SM, Ariel E. (2004). "The emergence of koi herpesvirus and its significance to European aquaculture." Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 24:293-307.

Hedrick RP, O Gilad, S Yun, JV Spangenberg, GD Marty, RW Nordhausen, MJ Kebus, H Bercovier, and A Eldar. (2000). "A herpesvirus associated with mass mortality of juvenile and adult koi, a strain of common carp." Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 12:44-57. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8667(2000)012<0044:AHAWMM>2.0.CO;2

Hedrick RP, Waltzek TB, McDowell TS. (2006). "Susceptibility of koi carp, common carp, goldfish, and goldfish x common carp hybrids to Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3." Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 18:26-34. https://doi.org/10.1577/H05-028.1

Kempter J, Sadowski J, Schutze H, Fischer U, Dauber M, Fichtner D, Panicz R, Bergmann SM. (2009). "Koi herpes virus: do acipenserid restitution programs pose a threat to carp farms in the disease-free zones?" Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatoria 19:119-126. https://doi.org/10.3750/AIP2009.39.2.06

Noga, E J. (2010). "Fish disease: diagnosis and treatment." Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IA. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118786758

Office International des Epizooties. (2012). "Diseases listed by the OIE." Aquatic Animal Health Code, 15th Edition, OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission (Aquatic Animals Commission), Office International des Epizooties. Available: www.oie.int/eng/normes/fcode/en_sommaire.htm. (September 2012)

Ornamental Aquatic Trade Association (OATA) (2001) Koi herpes virus (KHV). OATA, Westbury, Wilts, United Kingdom.

Perelberg, A, M Smirnov, M Hutoran, A Diamant, Y Bejerano, and M Kotler. (2003). "Epidemiological description of a new viral disease afflicting cultured Cyprinus carpio in Israel." The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture 55(1):5-12.

Petty, BD and WA Fraser. (2005). "Viruses of pet fish." Veterinary Clinics Exotic Animal Practice 8:67-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvex.2004.09.003

Pokorova, D, T Vesely, V Piackova, S Reschova and J Hulova. (2005). "Current knowledge on koi herpesvirus (KHV): a review." Vet Med-Czech 50(4):139-147. https://doi.org/10.17221/5607-VETMED

Ronen, A, A Perelberg, J Abramovitz, M Hutoran, S Tinman, I Bejerano, M Steinitz, and M Kotler. (2003). "Efficient vaccine against the virus causing a lethal disease in cultured Cyprinus carpio." Vaccine 21(32):4625-4743. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00523-1

Sadler J, Marcecaux E, Goodwin AE. (2008). "Detection of koi herpesvirus (CyHV3) in goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.), exposed to infected koi." Journal of Fish Diseases 31:71-72. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2007.00830.x

Sano T, Morita N, Shima N, Akimoto M. (1990). "A preliminary report on pathogenicity and oncogenicity of cyprinid herpesvirus." Bull Eur Ass Fish Path 10:11-13.

Shimizu T, Yoshida N, Kasai H, Yoshimizu M. (2006). "Survival of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in environmental water." Fish Path 41:153-157. https://doi.org/10.3147/jsfp.41.153

St-Hilaire S, Beevers N, Joiner C, Hedrick RP, Way K. (2009). "Antibody response of two populations of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., exposed to koi herpesvirus." J Fish Dis 32:311-320. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2008.00993.x

St-Hilaire S, Beevers N, Way K, Le Deuff RM, Martin P, Joiner C. (2005). "Reactivation of koi herpesvirus infections in common carp Cyprinus carpio." Dis Aquat Org 67:15-23. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao067015

Petty, BD, AC Riggs, R Klinger, R Yanong, and R Francis-Floyd. (2002). "Spring viremia of carp." University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Fact Sheet VM-142, Gainesville. Available: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/VM106. (September 2008)

Perelberg A, Ilouze M, Kotler M, Steinitz M. (2008). "Antibody response and resistance of Cyprinus carpio immunized with cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV3)." Vaccine 26:3750-3756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.04.057

Waltzek, TB, G O Kelley, D M Stone, K Way, L Hanson, H Fukuda, I Hirono, T Aoki, AJ Davison and RP Hedrick. (2005). "Koiherpesvirus represents a third cyprinid herpesvirus (CyHV-3) in the family Herpesviridae." Journal of General Virology 86:1659-1667. https://doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.80982-0

Waltzek TB, Kelley GO, Alfaro ME, Kurobe T, Davison AJ, Hedrick RP. (2009). "Phylogenetic relationships in the family Alloherpesviridae." Dis Aquat Org 84:179-194. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02023

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license.