4-H Youth Development Programming in Underrepresented Communities
4-H youth participating in a cooking workshop at 4-H University. Photo taken 07-26-22. UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones.
view on EDIS


How to Cite

Junge, Shanon K., Vanessa Starr Spero, Niki Crawson, J. R. Davis, Tara Dorn, Beth Rasa Edwards, Stacy Hall, Karen Henry, Heather Janney, Beth Kerr, Andrea Lazzari, Abby Morgan, Kristie Popa, Cindy Smalley, Melinda Souers, Katelin Stenroos, Laura Valencia, Travis West, Tracy Winters, and Mary-Louise Wood. 2023. “4-H Youth Development Programming in Underrepresented Communities: 4H436/4H436, 5/2023”. EDIS 2023 (3). Gainesville, FL. https://doi.org/10.32473/edis-4h436-2023.


This is part of a series of guides that have been updated with permission from 4-H National Council. This resource guide is designed to be used by Extension professionals and after-school providers to deliver positive youth development programs in underrepresented areas or with underrepresented populations. It includes information on identifying underserved or underrepresented audiences and potential challenges to their participation in 4-H programming. 

The original educational material was edited and revised for this edition by the National Association of 4-H Youth Development Professionals Afterschool Working Group, led by Vanessa Spero. Published by the 4-H Youth Development Department, UF/IFAS Extension, May 2023.

view on EDIS


-H Afterschool Leadership Team. (2003). Guiding growth: Training staff for working with youth in after-school programs. https://jeffersonwsu.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/afterschool-ages-stages.pdf

-H Afterschool Leadership Team. (2003). Starting 4-H clubs in after-school programs. https://nc4h.ces.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Clubs-in-AS.pdf?fwd=no

Academy for Educational Development. (n.d.). Center for Youth Development and Policy Research (CYDPR). https://www.cibhs.org/resource-vendor/center-youth-development-and-policy-research-cydpr

Afterschool Alliance. (n.d.). http://afterschoolalliance.org/

Ahearn, A., Childs-Bowen, D., Coady, M., Dickson, K., Heintz, C., Hughes, K., Rivas, M., Rodrigues, B., Trumbull, E., Uddin-Leimer, K., Van Broekhuzen, L. D., Wilson-Portuondo, M., & Williams, B. (2002). The diversity kit: An introductory resource for social change in education. Providence, RI: Brown University. https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:q3cdkvnz/PDF/?embed=true

Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2022). 2022 Kids Count Data Book. https://www.aecf.org/resources/2022-kids-count-data-book

Asset-Based Community Development Institute. (n.d.). Depaul University. https://resources.depaul.edu/abcd-institute/Pages/default.aspx

Association of Public & Land-Grant Universities (APLU). (n.d.). Access & diversity. https://www.aplu.org/our-work/5-archived-projects/access-and-diversity/

Beegle, D. M. (2006). See poverty... be the difference! Discover the missing pieces for helping people move out of poverty. Communication Across Barriers, Incorporated.

Bizumic, B., and Duckitt, J. (2012). What is and what is not ethnocentrism? A conceptual analysis and political implications. Political Psychology, 33(6), 887–909. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23324197

Bonham, V. L., Warshauer-Baker, E., & Collins, F. S. (2005). Race and ethnicity in the genome era: The complexity of the constructs. American Psychologist, 60(1), 9–15. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.1.9

Children, Youth and Families at Risk (CYFAR) Professional Development and Technical Assistance Center. (n.d.). https://cyfar.org/

Extension Foundation, Cooperative Extension, and USDA. (2022). Access, Equity and Belonging Committee. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from https://access-equity-belonging.extension.org/

eXtension Foundation Impact Collaborative. (n.d.). Diversity, equity, and inclusion. https://dei.extension.org/

Fix, M., Zimmerman, W., & Passel, J. (2001). The integration of immigrant families in the United States. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute. https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/61601/410227-The-Integration-of-Immigrant-Families-in-the-United-States.PDF

Gootman, J. A. (Ed.). (2000). After-school programs to promote child and adolescent development: Summary of a workshop. National Academy Press. Retrieved August 11, 2022, from https://nap.nationalacademies.org/read/9944/chapter/1

Graves, J. L., Jr. (2002). The biological case against race. American Outlook, Spring, 30–34. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234775682_The_Biological_Case_Against_Race

Guion, L. A. (1999). The diversity challenge: Programming in extension in the new millennium. North Carolina Cooperative Extension, NC State University.

Guion, L. A., Broadwater, G., Caldwell, C., Chattaraj, S. C., Goddard, H. W., & Lytle, S. S. (2003). Strengthening programs to reach diverse audiences. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. Staff Development Tool.

Guion, L., Chattaraj, S., & Lytle, S. S. (2004). Strengthening programs to reach diverse audiences: A curriculum to planning and implementing extension programs for ethnically diverse audiences. Journal of Extension, 42(1). https://archives.joe.org/joe/2004february/tt7.php

Guion, L. A., Kent, H., & Diehl, D. C. (2010). Ethnic marketing: A strategy for marketing programs to diverse audiences. EDIS, 2010(8). https://doi.org/10.32473/edis-fy758-2010

Junge, S. (2005). Teens as volunteer leaders: Recruiting teens to work with younger youth in after-school programs. https://cottonwood.k-state.edu/ellis-county4h/club-and-project-leader-resources/TeensasVolunteerLeaders.pdf

Locklear, E., & Valentine, N. (2005). Increasing the quantity of after-school programs: A guide for extension professionals to establish community-based after-school programs. https://nc4h.ces.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Increase-the-quantity.pdf?fwd=no

Lynch, E. W., and Hanson, M. J. (2011). Developing cross-cultural competence: A guide for working with children and their families. (4th ed.) Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Company.

Mancini, J. A., & Marek, L. (2004). Sustaining community-based programs: Examination of relationships between sustainability factors and program results. Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Association for International Agriculture and Extension Education. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228497373_Sustaining_community-based_programs_examination_of_relationships_between_sustainability_factors_and_program_results

Mantooth, L. J. (2005). Youth in governance: A guide for adults involving youth as decision makers on boards and committees. University of Tennessee 4-H Youth Development. https://www.scribd.com/document/6974444/Youth-in-Governance

Mark, C., Urban Smith, S., Voight, A., Adams, P., & Pace, K. (2007). Civic engagement: After-school activities for citizenship, leadership and service. https://4h.ucanr.edu/files/124237.pdf

National 4-H Council. (n.d.). https://4-h.org/

National 4-H Council. (n.d.). Marketing online resource center. https://4-h.org/professionals/marketing-resources/#!menu-builder

National Afterschool Association. (n.d.). https://naaweb.org/

National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME). (n.d.). https://www.nameorg.org/

Payne, R. (1998). A framework for understanding poverty. Highlands, TX: RFT Publishing Company.

Payne, R. (1999). Bridges out of poverty: Strategies for professionals and communities. Highlands, TX: RFT Publishing Company.

Pearson, M. (1995). Programming for limited resource families. Manhattan, KS: Cooperative Extension Kansas State University.

Perkins, D. (2002). Key issues facing rural youth. Rural-Urban Connections, 228, 2–15. http://srdc.msstate.edu/publications/archive/228.pdf

Program Leaders Working Group (PLWG) Access, Equity and Belonging Committee. (n.d.). https://access-equity-belonging.extension.org

Project Implicit. (n.d.). https://www.projectimplicit.net/

Riche, M. F. (2000). American's diversity and growth: Signposts for the 21st century. Population Bulletin, 55(2). https://www.prb.org/wp-content/uploads/2000/06/Population-Bulletin-2000-55-2-US-diversity.pdf

The roadmap to intercultural competence using the IDI. (n.d.). Intercultural Development Inventory | IDI, LLC. Retrieved August 2, 2022, from https://idiinventory.com/

Samuel, J., & Rose, P. (2011). Essential elements. Fact Sheet. 4-H National Headquarters. https://nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/resource/Essential%20Elements%20of%204-H%20v.2011.pdf

Scott, M., & Krinke, C. (2018). Essential elements for positive youth development. North Dakota State University. https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/publications/kids-family/essential-elements-for-positive-youth-development

Sparr, M., Morrison, C., Miller, K., Bartko, W. T., & Frazier, S. (2021). Afterschool programs to improve social-emotional, behavioral, and physical health in middle childhood: A targeted review of the literature. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation & Office on Women’s Health, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved August 15, 2022, from https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/private/pdf/265236/4_MCASP_LiteratureReview.pdf

Valencia, L. E., Suarez, C. E., & Diaz, J. M. (2019). Culturally responsive teaching: A framework for educating diverse audiences. EDIS, 2019(5), 5. https://doi.org/10.32473/edis-wc341-2019

Valentine, N., Kahler, J., and Cippoletti, S. (2003). Issues facing rural youth: A compendium of research, reports, and public opinion polls.

Washington State University. (n.d.). Navigating difference training for outreach professionals. https://diversity.wsu.edu/navigating-difference-training/

Williams, B., Vallejo, J., Toppin, L., & Johnson, B. (2018). 2017 CYFAR annual report. National Institute of Food and Agriculture. https://www.nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/resource/2017-CYFAR-Annual-Report.pdf

Texas Network of Youth Services. (2022). Youth engagement toolkit. https://tnoys.org/youth-engagement-toolkit/

Zeldin, S., McDaniel, A. K., Topitzes, D., & Calvert, M. (2000). Youth in decision-making: A study on the impacts of youth on adults and organizations. University of Wisconsin-Madison: Innovation Center/Tides Center, University of Wisconsin Extension. https://fyi.extension.wisc.edu/youthadultpartnership/files/2012/12/Youth_in_Decision_Making.pdf

Zeldin, S., & Price, L. A. (1995). Creating supportive communities for adolescent development: Challenges to scholars. Journal of Adolescent Research, 10, 6–15.

Copyright (c) 2023 UF/IFAS