Effects of Canals and Levees in Everglades Ecosystems
A collage of images from publications in this issue.
view on EDIS



How to Cite

Harvey, Rebecca G., William F. Loftus, Jennifer S. Rehage, and Frank J. Mazzotti. 2011. “Effects of Canals and Levees in Everglades Ecosystems: WEC304/UW349, 12/2010”. EDIS 2011 (1). https://doi.org/10.32473/edis-uw349-2010.


WEC304, a 20-page illustrated fact sheet by Rebecca G. Harvey, William F. Loftus, Jennifer S. Rehage, and Frank J. Mazzotti, comprehensively portrays the hydrological and ecological effects of canals and levees within the EPA landscape and considers ways their impacts may be mitigated. Includes references. Published by the UF Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, December 2010.

WEC304/UW349: Effects of Canals and Levees on Everglades Ecosystems: Circular (ufl.edu)

view on EDIS


Abrahamson, W. G. and D. C. Hartnett. 1990. Chapter 5: Pine Flatwoods and Dry Prairies. Pp. 103-149. In: Ecosystems of Florida. R.L. Myers and J.J. Ewel (eds.). University of Central Florida Press, Orlando, Florida.

Abtew, W., C. Pathak, R. S. Huebner, and V. Ciuca. 2010. Chapter 2: Hydrology of the South Florida Environment. Pp. 2-1 through 2-73. In: 2010 South Florida Environmental Report. Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), West Palm Beach, Florida.

Ackerman, B. B., S. D. Wright, R. K. Bonde, D. K. Odell, and D. J. Banowetz. 1995. Trends and patterns in the mortality of manatees in Florida, 1974-1992. Pp. 223-258. In: Population Biology of the Florida Manatee. T.J. O'Shea, B.B. Ackerman, and H.F. Percival (eds). National Biological Service Information and Technology Report 1. Washington, D.C.

Bates, A. L., W.H. Orem, J. W. Harvey, and E. C. Spiker. 2002. Tracing sources of sulfur in the Florida Everglades. Journal of Environmental Quality 31:287-299. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2002.2870

Belshe, J. F. 1961. Observations on an introduced tropical fish, Belonesox belizanus, in southern Florida. M.S. Thesis. University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.

Bennetts, R. E., M. W. Collopy, and J. A. Rodgers, Jr. 1994. The snail kite in the Florida Everglades: a food specialist in a changing environment. Pp. 507-532. In: Everglades: the Ecosystem and its Restoration. S.M. Davis and J.C. Ogden (eds.). St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida.

Brandt, L. A., K. M. Portier, and W. M. Kitchens. 2000. Patterns of change in tree islands in Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge from 1950 to 1991. Wetlands 20:1-14.

Brandt, L. A., M. R. Campbell, and F. J. Mazzotti. 2010. Spatial distribution of alligator holes in the central Everglades. Southeastern Naturalist 9(3):487-496. https://doi.org/10.1656/058.009.0307

Campbell, M. R., and F. J. Mazzotti. 2004. Characterization of natural and artificial alligator holes. Southeastern Naturalist 3(4):583-594. https://doi.org/10.1656/1528-7092(2004)003[0583:CONAAA]2.0.CO;2

Carr, R., J. Zanmanillo, and J. Pepe. 2002. Archaeological profiling and radiocarbon dating of the Ortona Canal (8GL4), Glades County, Florida. Florida Anthropologist 55(1):3-24.

Carriger, J. F., G. M. Rand, P. R. Gardinali, W. B. Perry, M. S. Tompkins, A. M. Fernandez. 2006. Pesticides of potential ecological concern in sediment from south Florida canals: an ecological risk prioritization for aquatic arthropods. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal 15 (1):21-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/15320380500363095

Cattau, C. E., J. Martin and W. M. Kitchens. 2010. Effects of an exotic prey species on a native specialist: Example of the snail kite. Biological Conservation 143(2):513-520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.11.022

Cervone, S., J. Schardt, and B. Hassell. 2004. Types of Florida Water Bodies: Canals. In: Plant Management in Florida Waters. V. Ramey (ed.). University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Gainesville, Florida. http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/guide/canals.html

Chick, J. H., C. R. Ruetz III, and J. C. Trexler. 2004. Spatial scale and abundance patterns of large fish communities in freshwater marshes of the Florida Everglades. Wetlands 24:652-664. https://doi.org/10.1672/0277-5212(2004)024[0652:SSAAPO]2.0.CO;2

Childers, D. L., R. F. Doren, R. Jones, G. B. Noe, M. Rugge, and L. J. Scinto. 2003. Decadal change in vegetation and soil phosphorus pattern across the Everglades landscape. Journal of Environmental Quality 32:344-362. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2003.3440

Chopp, M. D. 2003. Everglades alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) production and natural history in interior and canal habitats at Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. M.S. Thesis. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Chopp, M. D., H. F. Percival, and K. G. Rice. 2003. Northern Everglades Canals: Alligator Population Sources or Sinks? IN U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Science Program: 2002 Biennial Report (Open-File Report 03-54).

Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). 2010. Why Restore the Everglades - Part 4 Ecosystem Problems Center on Water. The CERP website: http://www.evergladesplan.org/about/why_restore_pt_04.aspx

Courtenay, W. R., Jr. 1997. Nonindigenous fishes. Pp. 109-122. In: Strangers in Paradise. D.S. Simberloff, D.C. Schmitz, and T.C. Brown (eds.). Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Darby, P. C., D. J. Mellow, and M. L. Watford. 2007. Food handling difficulties for snail kites capturing non-native apple snails. Florida Field Naturalist 35(3):79-85.

Davis, S. E. and J. C. Ogden. 1994. Towards ecosystem restoration. Pp. 769-796. In: Everglades: the Ecosystem and its Restoration. S.M. Davis and J.C. Ogden (eds.). St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida.

Doren, R. F., T. V. Armentano, L.D. Whiteaker, and R.D. Jones. 1997. Marsh vegetation patterns and soil phosphorus gradients in the Everglades ecosystem. Aquatic Botany 56(2):145-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3770(96)01079-0

Ferriter, A., K. Serbesoff-King, M. Bodle, C. Goodyear, B. Doren, and K. Langeland. 2004. Chapter 8E: Exotic Species in the Everglades Protection Area. Everglades Consolidated Report, South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, Florida.

Fleming D. M., W. F. Wolfe, and D. L. DeAngelis. 1994. Importance of landscape heterogeneity to wood storks in Florida Everglades. Environmental Management 18:743-757. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02394637

Flora, M. D. and P. C. Rosendahl. 1982. Historical changes in the conductivity and ionic characteristics of the source water for the Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Hydrobiologia 97(3):249-254. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00007112

Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission (FWC). 2007. Florida manatee management plan: Trichechus manatus latirostris. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission (FWC). 2009. The City Fisher, Issue 38. July-September 2009, South Region Fisheries Management Section, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, West Palm Beach, Florida.

Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission (FWC). 2010a. Florida's Top Spots for Black Bass 2010. FWC website: http://www.myfwc.com/RECREATION/FW_sites_topbass.htm.

Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission (FWC). 2010b. Everglades & Francis S. Taylor WMA. FWC website: http://myfwc.com/Recreation/WMASites_Everglades_recreation.htm

Forman, R. T. T. and L. E. Alexander. 1998. Roads and their major ecological impacts. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29:207-231. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.29.1.207

Fourqurean, J. W., R. D. Jones, and J. C. Zieman. 1993. Process influencing water column nutrient characteristics and phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton biomass in Florida bay, FL, USA: inferences from spatial distributions. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 36(3):195-314. https://doi.org/10.1006/ecss.1993.1018

Frederick, P. C., D. Axelrad, T. Atkeson, and C. Pollman. 2005. Contaminants research and policy: The Everglades mercury story. National Wetlands Newsletter 27:3-6.

Frederick, P. C. and N. U. A. Jayasena. In press. Altered pairing behaviour and reproductive success in White Ibises exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of methylmercury. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.

Fuller, P. L., L. G. Nico, and J. D. Williams. 1999. Nonindigenous Fishes. Introduction into Inland Waters of the United States. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 27, Bethesda, Maryland, 613 pp.

Gaiser, E. E., L. J. Scinto, J. H. Richards, K. Jayachandran, D. L. Childers, J. C. Trexler, and R. D. Jones. 2004. Phosphorus in periphytonmats provides the best metric for detecting low-level P enrichment in an oligotrophic wetland. Water Research 38:507-516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2003.10.020

Gaiser, E. E., J. C. Trexler, J. H. Richards, D. L. Childers, D. Lee, A. L. Edwards, L. J. Scinto, K. Jayachandrana, and R. D. Jones. 2005. Cascading ecological effects of low-level phosphorus enrichment in the Florida Everglades. Journal of Environmental Quality 34:717-723. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2005.0717

Grimshaw, H. J., R. G. Wetzel, M. Brandenburg, K. Segerblom, L. J. Wenkert, G. A. Marsh, W. Charnetzky, J. E. Haky, and C. Carraher. 1997. Shading of periphyton communities by wetland emergent macrophytes: decoupling of algal photosynthesis from microbial nutrient retention. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie 139(1):17-27. https://doi.org/10.1127/archiv-hydrobiol/139/1997/17

Gunderson, L. H. and W. F. Loftus. 1993. The Everglades. Pp. 199-255. In: Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States. W.H. Martin, S.G. Boyce, and A.C. Echternacht (eds.). John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Harvey J. W., S. L. Krupa, and J. M. Krest. 2004. Ground-water recharge and discharge in the central Everglades. Ground Water 42:1090-1102. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2004.tb02646.x

Harvey, J. W., and P. V. McCormick. 2009. Groundwater's significance to changing hydrology, water chemistry, and biological communities of a floodplain ecosystem, Everglades, South Florida, USA. Hydrogeology Journal 17:185-201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-008-0379-x

Hoffman, W., G. T. Bancroft, and R. J. Sawicki. 1994. Foraging habitat of wading birds in the water conservation areas of the Everglades. Pp. 585-614. In: Everglades: the Ecosystem and its Restoration. S.M. Davis and J.C. Ogden (eds.). St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida.

Hofmockel, K. 1999. Effects of hydrologic management decisions on marsh structure in Water Conservation Area 2A of the Everglades, Florida. M.S. Thesis, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Hollingsworth, R. G. and R. H. Cowie. 2006. Apple snails as disease vectors. Pp 121-132. In: Global Advances in Ecology and Management of Golden Apple Snails. R.C. Joshi and L.S. Sebastian (eds.). Philippine Rice Research Institute, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

Howard, K. S., W. F. Loftus, and J. C. Trexler. 1995. Seasonal dynamics of fishes in artificial culvert pools in the C-111 basin, Dade County, Florida. Final Report to the U. S Army Corps of Engineers as Everglades N. P. Cooperative Agreement #CA5280-2-9024.

Hunt, B. P. 1953. Food relationship between Florida spotted gar and other organisms in the Tamiami Canal, Dade County, Florida. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 82:14-32. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1952)82[13:FRBFSG]2.0.CO;2

Johnson, K. 2009. Freshwater angler surveys. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute. FWC Website: http://research.myfwc.com/features/view_article.asp?id=34099.

Kline, J. L., W. F. Loftus, K. Kotun, Z. W. Fratto, M. Robinson, S. Perry, and J. C. Trexler. 2008. Fish introductions into Everglades wetlands: an unforeseen consequence of restoration? Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration: Planning Policy and Science Meeting. Naples, Florida. July 28-August 1, 2008.

Kobza, R. M., J. C. Trexler, W. F. Loftus, and S. Perry. 2004. Community structure of fishes inhabiting aquatic refuges in a threatened Karst wetland and its implications for ecosystem management. Biological Conservation 116:153-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(03)00186-1

Krupa S, S. Hill, and S. Diaz. 2002. Investigation of Surface Water-Groundwater Interactions at S-7 Pump Station, Broward and Palm Beach Counties, Florida. Technical Publication WS-11, South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, Florida.

Kushlan, J. A. 1974. Observations of the role of the American alligator in the southern Florida wetlands. Copeia 993-996. https://doi.org/10.2307/1442609

Larsen, L. G. and J. W. Harvey. 2010. How vegetation and sediment transport feedbacks drive landscape change in the Everglades and wetlands worldwide. The American Naturalist 176(3): E-Article.

Larsen, L. G., J. W. Harvey, and J. P. Crimaldi. 2007. A delicate balance: ecohydrological feedbacks governing landscape morphology in a lotic peatland. Ecological Monographs 77(4):591-614. https://doi.org/10.1890/06-1267.1

Layzer, J. A. 2008. Natural Experiments: Ecosystem-Based Management and the Environment. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262122986.001.0001

Light, S. S. and J. W. Dineen. 1994. Water control in the Everglades: A historical perspective. Pp. 47-84. In: Everglades: the Ecosystem and its Restoration. S.M. Davis and J.C. Ogden (eds.). St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida.

Lodge, T. E. 2010. The Everglades Handbook: Understanding the Ecosystem. 3rd Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Loftus, W. F. and A. Eklund. 1994. Long-term dynamics of an Everglades small-fish assemblage. Pp. 461-483. In: Everglades: the Ecosystem and its Restoration. S.M. Davis and J.C. Ogden (eds.). St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida.

Loftus, W.F. and J.A. Kushlan. 1987. Freshwater fishes of southern Florida. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 31:147-344.

Loftus, W. F., L. G. Nico, J. Kline, S. A. Perry, and J. C. Trexler. 2003. Recent Fish Introductions into Southern Florida Freshwaters, with implications for the Greater Everglades region. 2nd Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (GEER) Conf., April 2003, Palm Harbor, Florida. USGS Open-File Report 03-54.

Loftus, W. F., G. Ellis, M. Zokan, and J. Lorenz. 2004. Inventory of freshwater fish species within the Big Cypress National Preserve: the basis for a long-term sampling program. US Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2004-3131. https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20043131

Loftus, W. F., J.C. Trexler, K. Dunker, S. E. Liston, and J. S. Rehage. 2006. Introduced Fishes in Short-Hydroperiod Wetlands: Evaluation of Sampling, Status, and Potential Effects. Final Report to the National Park Service, Everglades National Park, under CESI IA F5284-04-0039.

Lorenz, J. J. 2000. The impact of water management on Roseate Spoonbills and their piscine prey in the coastal wetlands of Florida Bay. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.

MacVicar, T. K. 1985. A Wet Season Field Test of Experimental Water Deliveries to Northeast Shark River Slough. Technical Publication 85-3. South Florida Water Management District, Resource Planning Department and Resource Operations Department.

MacMahon, D. A. and W. H. Marquardt. 2004. The Calusa and their Legacy: South Florida People and their Environments. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Mazzotti, F. J. and L. A. Brandt. 1994. Ecology of the American alligator in a seasonally fluctuating environment. Pp. 485-505. In: Everglades: the Ecosystem and its Restoration. S.M. Davis and J.C. Ogden (eds.). St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida.

McCormick, P. V. and J. A. Laing. 2003. Effects of increased phosphorus loading on dissolved oxygen in a subtropical wetland, the Florida Everglades. Wetlands Ecology and Management 11:99-216. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024259912402

McCormick, P. V., P. S. Rawlik, K. Lurding, E. P. Smith, and F. H. Sklar. 1996. Periphyton-water quality relationships along a nutrient gradient in the northern Everglades. Journal of the North American Bethological Society 15(4):433-449. https://doi.org/10.2307/1467797

McCormick, P. V., S. Newman, S. Miao, D. E. Gawlik, D. Marley, K. R. Reddy, and T. D. Fontaine. 2002. Effects of anthropogenic phosphorus inputs on the Everglades. Pp. 83-126. In: The Everglades, Florida Bay, and Coral Reefs of the Florida Keys: An Ecosystem Sourcebook. J.W. Porter and K.G. Porter (eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

McCormick, P. V., R. B. E. Shuford III, and P. S. Rawlik. 2004. Changes in macroinvertebrate community structure and function along a phosporus gradient in the Florida Everglades. Hydrobiologia 529:113-132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-004-5737-7

McElroy, T. C., K. L. Kandl, J. Garcia, and J. C. Trexler. 2003. Extinction-colonization dynamics structure genetic variation of spotted sunfish (Lepomis punctatus) in the Florida Everglades. Molecular Ecology 12(2):355-368. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01738.x

McIvor, C. C., J. A. Ley, and R. D. Bjork. 1994. Changes in freshwater inflow from the Everglades to Florida Bay including effects on biota and biotic processes: A review. Pp. 117-146. In: Everglades: the Ecosystem and its Restoration. S. M. Davis and J. C. Ogden (eds.). St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida.

National Park Service (NPS). 2005. An Assessment of the Interim Operational Plan. South Florida Natural Resources Center, Everglades National Park. http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/units/sfcn/docs/water/iop_report.pdf

National Park Service (NPS). 2010. Everglades Archaeological Heritage. The NPS website: http://www.nps.gov/ever/historyculture/archaeological-heritage.htm

Noe, G. B., D. L. Childers, and R. D. Jones. 2001. Phosphorus biogeochemistry and the impact of phosphorus enrichment: why is the Everglades so unique? Ecosystems 4:603-624 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-001-0032-1

Nuttle, W. K., J. W. Fourqurean, B. J. Cosby, J. C. Zieman, and M. B. Robblee. 2000. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay. Water Resources Research 36(7):1805-1822. https://doi.org/10.1029/1999WR900352

Ogden, J. C. 2005. Everglades ridge and slough conceptual ecological model. Wetlands 25:810-820. https://doi.org/10.1672/0277-5212(2005)025[0810:ERASCE]2.0.CO;2

Palmer, M. L. and F. J. Mazzotti. 2004. Structure of Everglades alligator holes. Wetlands 24(1):115-122. https://doi.org/10.1672/0277-5212(2004)024[0115:SOEAH]2.0.CO;2

Patterson, K. and R. Finck. 1999. Tree islands of the WCA3 aerial photointerpretation and trend analysis project summary report. Geonex Corporation, Report to the South Florida Water Management District, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Pfeuffer, R. J and J. M. Rand. 2004. South Florida ambient pesticide monitoring program. Ecotoxicology 13:195-205. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:ECTX.0000023565.91904.20

Rawlings, T. A., K. A. Hayes, R. H. Cowie, and T. M. Collins. 2007. The identity, distribution, and impacts of non-native apple snails in the continental United States. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:97. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-7-97

Rehage, J. S. and J. C. Trexler. 2006. Assessing the net effect of anthropogenic disturbance on aquatic communities in wetlands: community structure relative to distance from canals. Hydrobiologia 569:359-373. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-006-0142-z

Rehage, J. S., K. Dunlop, and W. F. Loftus. 2009. Mosquitofish antipredator responses to non-native cichlids: a test of the prey naiveté hypothesis. Ethology 115:1-11. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.2009.01694.x

Rutchey, K., T. Schall, and F. Sklar. 2008. Development of vegetation maps for assessing Everglades restoration progress. Wetlands 28(3):806-816. https://doi.org/10.1672/07-212.1

Scheidt, D., J. Stober, R. Jones, and K. Thornton. 2000. South Florida Ecosystem Assessment: Everglades Water Management, Soil Loss, Eutrophication and Habitat. Report No. 904-R-00-003, United States Environmental Protection Agency, West Palm Beach, Florida.

Schofield, P. J., W. F. Loftus, R. M. Kobza, M. I. Cook, and D. H. Slone. 2010. Tolerance of nonindigenous cichlid fishes (Cichlasoma urophthalmus, Hemichromis letourneuxi) to low temperature: laboratory and field experiments in south Florida. Biological Invasions 12: 2441-2457. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-009-9654-6

Schmitz, D. C., J. D. Schardt, A. J. Leslie, F. A. Dray, J. A. Osborne, and B. V. Nelson. 1993. The ecological impact and management history of three invasive alien aquatic species in Florida. Pp. 173-194. In: Biological Pollution: The Control and Impact of Invasive Exotic Species. B. N. McKnight (ed.). Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Schuler, L. J. and G. M. Rand. 2008. Aquatic risk assessment of herbicides in freshwater ecosystems of south Florida. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 54:571-583. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-007-9085-2

Science Coordination Team (SCT). 2003. The role of flow in the Everglades ridge and slough landscape. South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Working Group. http://www.sfrestore.org/sct/docs/SCT%20Flow%20Paper%20-%20Final.pdf

Scott, G. I., M. H. Fulton, E. F. Wirth, G. T. Chandler, P. B. Key, J. W. Daugomah, D. Bearden, K. W. Chung, E. D. Strozier, M. Delorenzo, S. Sivertsen, A. Dias, M. Sanders, J. M. Macauley, L. R. Goodman, M. W. Lacroix, G. W. Thayer, And J. Kucklick. 2002. Toxicological studies in tropical ecosystems: an ecotoxicological risk assessment of pesticide runoff in south Florida estuarine ecosystems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50:4400-4408. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011356c

Serafy, J. E., K. C. Lindeman, T. E. Hopkins, and J. S. Ault. 1997. Effects of freshwater canal discharge on fish assemblages in a subtropical bay: field and laboratory observations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 160:161-172. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps160161

Shafland, P. L. 1995. Introduction and establishment of a successful butterfly peacock fishery in southeast Florida canals. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15:443-451.

Shafland, P. L. 1996. Exotic fish assessments: An alternative view. Reviews in Fisheries Science 4(2):123-132. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641269609388582

Shafland, P. L. and J. M. Pestrak. 1982. Lower lethal temperatures for fourteen non-native fishes in Florida. Environmental Biology of Fishes 7(2):149-156. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00001785

Shafland, P. L., K. B. Gestring, and M. S. Stanford. 2008. Florida's exotic freshwater fishes-2007. Florida Scientist 3:220-245.

Sklar, F. and J. A. Browder. 1998. Coastal environmental impacts brought about by alterations to freshwater flow in the Gulf of Mexico. Environmental Management 22(4):547-562. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002679900127

Sklar, F. and A. Van der Valk (eds.). 2002. Tree Islands of the Everglades. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, Massachusetts. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-0001-1

Sklar, F., C. McVoy, R. VanZee, D. E. Gawlik, K. Tarboton, D. Rudnick, and S. Miao. 2002. The effects of altered hydrology on the ecology of the Everglades. Pp. 39-82. In: The Everglades, Florida Bay, and Coral Reefs of the Florida Keys: An Ecosystem Sourcebook. J.W. Porter and K.G. Porter (eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Sonenshein, R. S. 1996. Delineation of Saltwater Intrusion in the Biscayne Aquifer, Eastern Dade County, Florida, 1995. US Geological Survey, Miami, Florida, Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4285.

South Florida Natural Resources Center (SFNRC). 2010. DataForEVER Dataset, Everglades National Park, Homestead, FL, Generated by Jeff Kline, using Appaserver software (http://www.appaserver.com), Sacramento, CA, Public URL not currently available, please send data requests to EVER_data_request@nps.gov.

Stober, Q. J., R. D. Jones, and D. J. Scheidt. 1995. Ultra trace level mercury in the Everglades ecosystem, a multi-media canal pilot study. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 80: 991-1001.

Surratt, D. D., M. Waldon, M. C. Harwell, and N. G. Aumen. 2008. Time-series and spatial tracking of polluted canal water intrusion into wetlands of a national wildlife refuge in Florida, USA. Wetlands 28:176-183. https://doi.org/10.1672/07-74.1

Trexler, J. C., W. F. Loftus, F. Jordan, J. J. Lorenz, J. H. Chick, and R. M. Kobza. 2000. Empirical assessment of fish introductions in a subtropical wetland: an evaluation of contrasting views. Biological Invasions 2:265-277. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011488118444

Trexler, J. C., W. F. Loftus, F. Jordan, J. H. Chick, K. L. Kandl, T. C. McElroy, and O. L. Bass, Jr. 2002. Ecological scale and its implications for freshwater fishes in the Florida Everglades. Pp. 153-181. In: The Everglades, Florida Bay, and Coral Reefs of the Florida Keys: An Ecosystem Sourcebook. J.W. Porter and K.G. Porter (eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Trexler, J. C., W. F. Loftus, and S. A. Perry. 2005. Disturbance frequency and community structure in a twenty-five year intervention study. Oecologia 145:140-152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-005-0094-4

Turner, A. M., J. C. Trexler, F. Jordan, S. J. Slack, P. Geddes, and W. Loftus. 1999. Targeting ecosystem features for conservation: standing crops in the Florida Everglades. Conservation Biology 13:898-911. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.97513.x

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD). 2002. Project Management Plan: WCA-3 Decompartmentalization and Sheet flow Enhancement Part 1.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD). 2010. Decomp Physical Model Environmental Assessment (EA) & Design Test Documentation Report (DTDR). Final, April 2010. EA Appendix E: Decomp Physical Model Science Plan.

Walters, C. J. and L. H. Gunderson. 1994. A screening of water policy alternatives for ecological restoration in the Everglades. Pp. 757-767. In: Everglades: the Ecosystem and its Restoration. S. M. Davis and J. C. Ogden (eds.). St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida.

Wanless, H. R. and B. M. Vlaswinkel. 2005. Coastal landscape and channel evolution affecting critical habitats at Cape Sable, Everglades National Park, Florida. Final Report to Everglades National Park. National Park Service. U.S. Department of Interior, http://www.nps.gov/ever/naturescience/upload/CESIProjectRES02-1Secure.pdf

Watts, D. L., M. J. Cohen, J. B. Heffernan, and T. Z. Osborne. 2010. Hydrologic modification and the loss of self-organized patterning in the ridge-slough mosaic of the Everglades. Ecosystems 13(6):813-827. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-010-9356-z

Wingard, G. L., J. B. Murray, W. B. Schill, and E. C. Phillips. 2008. Red-Rimmed Melania (Melanoides tuberculatus)-A Snail in Biscayne National Park, Florida-Harmful Invader or Just a Nuisance? U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2008-3006, 6 pp. https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20083006