WEC-216, a 2-page fact sheet by Frank J. Mazzotti and Joy J. Vinci, discusses briefly the philosophical issues surrounding the use of ecological models and try to reduce confusion by providing definitions for these three key terms. Includes references. Published by the UF Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, April 2007.
WEC216/UW256: Validation, Verification, and Calibration: Using Standardized Terminology When Describing Ecological Models (ufl.edu)
Holling, C.S. 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. John Wiley and Sons. New York, NY.
Mitro M.G. 2001. Ecological model testing: verification, validation, or neither? Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 82:235-236. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9623(2001)082[0235:SACN]2.0.CO;2
Oreskes N, Shrader-Frechette K, Belitz K. Feb 1994. Verification, validation, and confirmation of numerical models in the earth sciences. Science, 263:641-646. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.263.5147.641
Rykiel, E.J., Jr. 1996. Testing ecological models: the meaning of validation. Ecological Modeling, 90:229-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3800(95)00152-2