Triangulation: Establishing the Validity of Qualitative Studies
A man and woman.



How to Cite

Guion, Lisa A., David C. Diehl, and Debra McDonald. 2011. “Triangulation: Establishing the Validity of Qualitative Studies: FCS6014/FY394, Rev. 8/2011”. EDIS 2011 (8). Gainesville, FL:3.


Triangulation is a method used by qualitative researchers to check and establish validity in their studies by analyzing a research question from multiple perspectives. This revised 3-page fact sheet presents five types of triangulation. Written by Lisa A. Guion, David C. Diehl, and Debra McDonald , and published by the UF Department of Family Youth and Community Sciences, August 2011.

This is a major revision of :

Guion, Lisa. 2002. “Triangulation: Establishing the Validity of Qualitative Studies”. EDIS 2002 (6).


Burr, G. (1998). Contextualizing critical care family needs through triangulation: An Australian study. Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, 14(4), 161-169.

Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Thurmond, V. (2001). The point of triangulation. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33(3), 254-256. Retrieved from:

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