Tropical Soda Apple Leaf Beetle, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae)
Reproductive adult and adult in diapause of Gratiana boliviana.
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How to Cite

Diaz, Rodrigo, William A. Overholt, Ken Hibbard, and Julio Medal. 2013. “Tropical Soda Apple Leaf Beetle, Gratiana Boliviana Spaeth (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae): EENY543/IN974, 1/2013”. EDIS 2013 (2). Gainesville, FL.


Tropical soda apple is a prickly shrub native to South America that is a major problem in pastures and conservation areas. So a multi-agency program supported the rearing, distribution, and release of more than 250,000 tropical soda apple leaf beetles across Florida from 2003 to 2011. This 4-page fact sheet was written by Rodrigo Diaz, William A. Overholt, Ken Hibbard, and Julio Medal, and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, January 2013.
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Diaz R, Overholt WA, Samayoa A, Sosa F, Cordeau D, Medal J. 2008. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and potential distribution of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum (Solanaceae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 18: 193-207.

Diaz R, Overholt WA, Hahn D, Samayoa A. 2011. Diapause induction in Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple in Florida. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 103: 1319-1326.

Diaz R, Aguirre C, Wheeler GS, Lapointe SL, Rosskopf E, Overholt WA. 2011. Differential performance of tropical soda apple and its biological control agent Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in open and shaded habitats. Environmental Entomology 40:1437-1447.

Diaz R, Hibbard K, Samayoa A, Overholt WA. 2012. Arthropod community associated with tropical soda apple and natural enemies of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist 95: 228-232.

Medal JC, Bustamante N, Overholt W, Diaz R, Stansly P, Amalin D, Roda A, Hibbard K, Sellers B, Hight S, Cuda JP. 2003 (revised 2011). Biology of Gratiana boliviana, the first biocontrol agent released to control tropical soda apple in the USA. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, UF/IFAS, EDIS, ENY-826 (IN487).

Medal J, Overholt W, Charudattan R, Mullahey J, Gaskala R, Diaz R, Cuda J. 2012. Tropical soda apple management plan. UF/IFAS and FDACS/DPI, Gainesville FL.

Overholt WA, Diaz R, Hibbard K, Roda AL, Amalin D, Fox AJ, Hight SD, Medal JC, Stansly PA, Carlisle B, Walter JH, Hogue PJ, Gary LA, Wiggins, LF, Kirby CL, Crawford SC. 2009. Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae) in Florida. Florida Entomologis 92: 450-457.

Overholt WA, Diaz R, Markle L, Medal JC. 2010. The effect of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) herbivory on growth and population density of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) in Florida. Biocontrol Science and Technology 20: 791-807.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license.