Brazilian Peppertree Thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini (Hood) (Insecta: Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae)
view on EDIS

How to Cite

Prade, Patricia, Carey Minteer, and James Cuda. 2020. “Brazilian Peppertree Thrips Pseudophilothrips Ichini (Hood) (Insecta: Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae)”. EDIS 2020 (2).


The Brazilian peppertree thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is an insect native to Brazil (Figure 1). This species has been studied for the last 20+ years as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), in Florida (Cuda et al. 2008; Cuda et al. 2008; Manrique at al. 2014; Wheeler et al. 2016a, b). Host specificity experiments demonstrated that Pseudophilothrips ichini has a limited host range (Cuda et al. 2008; Cuda et al. 2009; Wheeler et al. 2017) and can cause a severe reduction of Brazilian peppertree biomass (Manrique at al. 2014).

view on EDIS


Barkley FA. 1944. "Schinus L." Brittonia 5: 160-198.

Bowen WR, Stern VM. 1966. "Effect of temperature on the production of males and sexual mosaics in a uniparental race of Trichogramma semifumatum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)." Annals of the Entomological Society of America 59: 823-834.

Cuda JP, Habeck DH, Overholt WA, Medal JC, Pedrosa-Macedo JH, Vitorino MD. 1999. Classical Biological Control of Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia) in Florida. ENY-820. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. (24 April 2018)

Cuda JP, Ferriter AP, Manrique V, Medal JC. 2006. "Florida's Brazilian peppertree management plan." Recommendations from the Brazilian peppertree task force Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, pp. 1-82, 2nd ed., Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, Gainesville, FL.

Cuda JP, Gillmore JL, Medal JC, Pedrosa-Macedo JH. 2008. "Mass rearing of Pseudophilothrips ichini (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), an approved biological control agent for Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae)." Florida Entomologist 91: 338-40.[338:MROPIT]2.0.CO;2

Cuda JP, Medal JC, Gillmore J, Habeck D, Pedrosa-Macedo JH. 2009. "Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothnps ichini sl. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): A candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States." Environmental Entomology 38: 1642-1652.

Cuda JP, Prade P, Minteer CR. 2017. Yellow Brazilian Peppertree Leaf-Galler. EENY-689. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. (13 April 2018)

Manrique V, Cuda JP, Overholt WA. 2013. Brazilian peppertree: A poster child for invasive plants in Florida landscapes. Journal of Florida Studies 1(2). http://www. (10 April 2018)

Manrique V, Diaz R, Erazo L, Reddi N, Wheeler GS, Williams D, Overholt WA. 2014. "Comparison of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) as candidates for biological control of the invasive weed Schinus terebinthifolia (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae)." Biocontrol Science and Technology 24: 518-535.

Morton JF. 1978. "Brazilian pepper: Its impact on people, animals and the environment." Economic Botany 32: 353-359.

Rodgers L, Mason C, Bodle M, Brown R, Ellen A, Tipping P, Rochford M, Mazzotti F, Peters A, Renda M, Beeler C, Ketterlin-Eckles J, Laroche F, Segura C, Serbesoff-King K. 2017. Chapter 7: Status of nonindigenous species, pp. 1-58, in 2017 South Florida Environmental Report, Vol. I. The South Florida Environment. South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL.

Schmitz DC, Simberloff D, Hofstetter RH, Haller W, Sutton D. 1997. The Ecological Impact of Nonindigenous Plants. In Simberloff D, Schmitz DC, Brown TC, eds. Strangers in paradise: Impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida, pp. 39-61. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Wheeler GS, McKay F, Vitorino MD, Manrique V, Diaz R, Overholt WA. 2016a. "Biological control of the invasive weed Schinus terebinthifolia (Brazilian Peppertree): A review of the project with an update on the proposed agents." Southeastern Naturalist 15: 15-34.

Wheeler GS, Silverson N, Dyer K, Mc Kay F. 2016b. "Brazilian collections and laboratory biology of the thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a potential biological control agent of the invasive weed Brazilian peppertree (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae)." Florida Entomologist 99: 6-11.

Wheeler GS, Manrique V, Overholt WA, Mc Kay F, Dyer K. 2017. "Quarantine host range testing of Pseudophilothrips ichini, a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia) in North America and Hawaii." Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 162: 204-217.

Copyright (c) 2020 UF/IFAS