FOR-189, a 3-page illustrated fact sheet by Rick Williams and Patrick Minogue, describes this semi-evergreen to evergreen thick-forming shrub which was introduced as an ornamental shrub in the South in 1852 and is widely naturalized in the Panhandle and northern counties — its biology and management strategies. Includes references. Published by the UF School of Forest Resources and Conservation, July 2008.
Dirr, M.A. 1983. Manual of woody landscape plants. 3rd ed. Stipes Publishing Co., Champaign, IL. 536 p.
Langeland, K.A. and D. C. Burks (eds). 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. 165 p.
Meyer, F.G., P.M. Mazzeo and D.H. Voss. 1994. A catalog of cultivated woody plants of the Southeastern U.S. USDA, Washington, D.C. National Arboretum Contribution 7. 330 p. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.63965
Miller, J. H. 2003. Nonnative invasive plants of southern forests: A field guide for identification and control. USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station General Technical Report SRS-62. Asheville, NC. 93 p. https://doi.org/10.2737/SRS-GTR-62
Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora, part one and two. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1554 p.
Wunderlin, R.P., B.F. Hansen and E.L. Bridges. 1995. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Web site: http://www.usf.edu/isb/projects/atlas/atlas.html.