Large Carpenter Bees, Xylocopa spp. (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae)
EDIS Cover Volume 2002 Number 6 plant image
view on EDIS



How to Cite

Grissell, E. E., Malcolm T. Sanford, and Thomas R. Fasulo. 2002. “Large Carpenter Bees, Xylocopa Spp. (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae): EENY-100/IN257, 7/1999”. EDIS 2002 (6). Gainesville, FL.


This document is EENY-100, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date July 1999. Reviewed May 2003.

EENY-100/IN257: Large Carpenter Bees, Xylocopa spp. (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae) (
view on EDIS


Balduf, W.V. 1962. Life of the carpenter bee, Xylocopa virginica (Linn.). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 55: 263-271.

Borror, D.J., C.A. Triplehorn and N.F. Johnson. 1989. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. 6th Ed. Harcourt Brace, New York. xiv, 875 p.

Chandler, L. 1958. Seven species of carpenter bees are found in the United States. Pest Control 26 (9): 36, 38, 40, 47.

Daly, H.V. 1973. Bees of the genus Ceratina in America north of Mexico. University of California Publication Entomology 74: 1-113.

Grissell, E.E. and M.T. Sanford. (July 1999). Small carpenter bees, Ceratina spp. UF/IFAS Featured Creatures. EENY-101. (July 1999).

Howard, L.O. 1892. Note on the hibernation of carpenter bees. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 2: 331- 332.

Hurd, P.D., Jr. 1955. The carpenter bees of California. Bull. California Insect Survey 4: 35-72.

Hurd, P.D., Jr. 1958. Observations on the nesting habits of some new world carpenter bees with remarks on their importance in the problem of species formation. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 51: 365- 375.

Hurd, P.D., Jr. 1961. A synopsis of the carpenter bees belonging to the subgenus Xylocopoides Michener. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 87: 247-257.

Hurd, P.D., Jr., and J.S. Moure. 1963. A classification of the large carpenter bees (Xylocopini). University of California Publication Entomology 29: 1-365.

Koehler, P.G., D.E.Short and T.R. Fasulo. (1998). Pests In and Around the Home. UF/IFAS, SW-126.

Krombein, K.V. 1967. Apoidea. In Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog. Second Suppl. U.S. Department of Agriculture Monograph 2: 514-515.

Mallis, A. (ed.) 1990. Handbook of Pest Control. 7th Edition. Franzak & Foster Co. Cleveland. 1152 p.

Mitchell, T.B. 1962. Bees of the Eastern United States. Vol. II. North Carolina Agriculture Experiment Statation Technical Bulletin No. 152: 1-557.

Rau, P. 1933. The Jungle Bees and Wasps of Barro Colorado Island. Privately printed, Kirkwood, MO. 324 p.

Sabrosky, C.W. 1962. Mating in Xylocopa virginica. Proceedings of the Entomology Society of Washington. 64: 184.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license.