Run, Hide, and Fight to Save Your Life


  • Joann Farmer Florida Gulf Coast University
  • Jingshun Zhang Florida Gulf Coast University




The purpose of this study is to investigate students’ gain in self-protection efficacy after participating in face-to-face active shooter training. Research was conducted at a state level university to determine if face-to-face active shooter training for undergraduates was more effective than online training. Face-to-face training was administered to 170 undergraduates in five different classrooms over a 10-day period. Pre- and post-surveys were administered to the participants to determine differences in their understanding of active shooter protocol and confidence in their abilities to execute protocol if needed. Paired sample t tests revealed there were significant differences in the pre- and post-training surveys. ANOVA tests were conducted to determine how much online active shooter training enriched students’ feelings of safety on campus and the degree to which face-to-face active shooter training influenced students’ knowledge of protocol and feelings of being able to protect themselves in an active shooter situation.




How to Cite

Farmer, J., & Zhang, J. (2020). Run, Hide, and Fight to Save Your Life. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 58(7), 44–57. Retrieved from