Evolution of Host Search Strategies in Entomopathogenic Nematodes
Keywords:behavior, entomopathogen, evolution, foraging, host search, nematode, steinernema
AbstractThere is interspecific variation in infective juvenile behavior within the entomopathogenic nematode genus Steinernema. This variation is consistent with use of different foraging strategies along a continuum between ambush and cruise foraging. To address questions about the evolution of foraging strategy, behavioral and morphological characters were mapped onto a phylogeny of Steinernema. Three species, all in the same clade, were classified as ambushers based on standing bout duration and host-finding ability. One clade of six species were all cruisers based on both host-finding and lack of standing behavior. All species in the ambusher clade had a high rate of jumping, all species in the cruiser clade had no jumping, and most intermediate foragers exhibited some level of jumping. Response to volatile and contact host cues was variable, even within a foraging strategy. Infective juveniles in the ambusher clade were all in the smallest size category, species in the cruiser clade were in the largest size categories, and intermediate foragers tended to be more intermediate in size. We hypothesize that the ancestral Steinernema species was an intermediate forager and that ambush and cruise foraging both evolved at least once in the genus.
Copyright and Permissions
All material published by the Society of Nematologists (SON), except for papers prepared by United States and Canadian government employees, is copyrighted and protected under the U.S. copyright law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the term of copyright for materials registered by an organization is 75 years from the date first published. Before publishing any manuscript, SON requires that authors transfer full and complete ownership of any copyright to SON by signing a JON Page Charge/Copyright Form (.pdf). SON then registers the copyright. Subsequent use of published materials requires written permission from the SON and may be obtained by contacting the current Editor-in-Chief and state where and how the material will be used.
The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant. If portions of the article have been published previously, then the author warrants that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder and the author will submit a copy of the permission release with this copyright transfer form.
SON shall claim no proprietary right other than copyright. Authors and coauthors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal noncommercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).