Factors Affecting the Suppression of Heterodera glycines by N-Viro Soil
Keywords:ammonia, biosolid, heterodera glycines, meloidogyne incognita, nematodes, ph
AbstractPrevious laboratory research demonstrated that N-Viro Soil (NVS), an alkaline-stabilized municipal biosolid, suppressed plant-parasitic nematodes. This study continued to explore the use of NVS as a nematode management tool specifically addressing factors that could influence its use. N-Viro Soil from different locations, the components of NVS (de-watered biosolids and fly ash admixtures), and sterilized NVS were applied to sand microcosms to determine effects on nematode survival sand solution pH and ammonia concentrations. This study confirmed the previous finding that an important mechanism of Heterodera glycines suppression by NVS was the generation of alkaline soil conditions. Only the fly ash admixture that resulted in an increase in pH to 10.0 suppressed H. glycines to the same level as NVS. Alkaline-stabilization of biosolids was necessary to achieve nematode suppression. Biosolids applied at rates 3% dry w/w did not suppress H. glycines to the same level as equivalent amounts of NVS. Sand solution pH levels after biosolid application, regardless of rate, were approximately 8.5 whereas 1% and 4% w/w NVS amendment resulted in pH levels of 10.3 and 11.6, respectively. NVS from different processing facilities were all effective in suppressing H. glycines. The NVS source that produced the highest concentration of ammonia did not reduce H. glycines survival to the same level as those sources generating pH levels above 10.1. Microbes associated with NVS appeared not to be responsible for the nematode suppressiveness of the amendment; there was no difference in nematode suppression between autoclaved and nonautoclaved NVS. The role that ammonia plays in the suppression of H. glycines by NVS is still unclear.
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