Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. on Resistant Peanut Genotypes from Three Breeding Programs
AbstractThree described species of root-knot nematode parasitize peanut (Arachis hypogaea): Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 (Ma), M. hapla (Mh), and M. javanica (Mj). Peanut cultivars with broad resistance to Meloidogyne spp. will be useful regardless of the species present in the field. The objective of this study was to determine whether peanut genotypes with resistance to M. arenaria originating from three different breeding programs were also resistant to M. hapla and M. javanica. The experiment used a factorial arrangement (completely randomized) with peanut genotype and nematode population as the factors. The five peanut genotypes were 'COAN' and AT 0812 (highly resistant to Ma), C209-6-13 (moderately resistant to Ma), and 'Southern Runner' and 'Georgia Green' (susceptible to Ma). The four nematode populations were two isolates of Ma (Gibbs and Gop) and one isolate each of Mh and Mj. On COAN or AT 0812, both Ma and Mj produced 10% of the eggs produced on Georgia Green. On the peanut genotype C209-6-13, Ma and Mj produced about 50% of the eggs produced on Georgia Green. None of the resistant genotypes exhibited a high level of resistance to Mh. The lack of resistance to Mh in any cultivars or advanced germplasm is a concern because the identity of a Meloidogyne sp. in a particular peanut field is generally not known. Breeding efforts should focus on moving genes for resistance to M. hapla into advanced peanut germplasm, and combining genes for resistance to the major Meloidogyne spp. in a single cultivar.
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