Energy Metabolism and Survival of the Infective Juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae under Oxygen-Deficient Conditions
AbstractEnergy metabolism and its relation to survival of the infective juveniles (IJ) of S. carpocapsae under anaerobic and oxygen-deficient conditions were studied by monitoring changes in survival rate, levels of key energy reserve materials, oxygen consumption, and respiratory quotient (RQ). The effects of various factors on the survival of IJ under anaerobic conditions were also investigated. Under anaerobic conditions, the IJ were inactivated but could survive for several days in an immobile state, using the carbohydrate reserves glycogen and trehalose for energy supply. The survival time of IJ was mainly dependent on the availability of energy supply, which, in turn, was influenced by factors such as temperature and metabolic by-products. Surviving, anaerobically incubated IJ fully recovered upon return to aerobic conditions. Recovering IJ were characterized by regaining mobility and restoration of carbohydrate reserves consumed during the anaerobic period. Carbohydrate reserves were restored by conversion from lipid reserves and possibly from anaerobic metabolic by-products. The infectivity of IJ recovered from the anaerobic state was not affected. At 1% oxygen level, IJ were also immobile and mainly depended on carbohydrate reserves for energy supply and the RQ was greater than 1. However, some oxygen was consumed; the survival time of these IJ was shorter than those kept in natural air but longer than those under anaerobic conditions. When IJ were incubated at oxygen levels of 3% to 21%, the RQs were maintained at 0.7 to 0.8. Oxygen consumption rates and the reduction in both mean dry weight and lipid levels were proportional to oxygen levels while the survival time of IJ was inversely proportional to oxygen levels.
Copyright and Permissions
All material published by the Society of Nematologists (SON), except for papers prepared by United States and Canadian government employees, is copyrighted and protected under the U.S. copyright law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the term of copyright for materials registered by an organization is 75 years from the date first published. Before publishing any manuscript, SON requires that authors transfer full and complete ownership of any copyright to SON by signing a JON Page Charge/Copyright Form (.pdf). SON then registers the copyright. Subsequent use of published materials requires written permission from the SON and may be obtained by contacting the current Editor-in-Chief and state where and how the material will be used.
The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant. If portions of the article have been published previously, then the author warrants that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder and the author will submit a copy of the permission release with this copyright transfer form.
SON shall claim no proprietary right other than copyright. Authors and coauthors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal noncommercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).