Crop Yields and Nematode Population Densities in Triticale-Cotton and Triticale-Soybean Rotations
AbstractTriticale cv. Beagle 82, cotton cv. McNair 235, and soybean cv. Twiggs were arranged in three cropping sequences to determine the effects of fenamiphos and cropping sequence on nematode population densities and crop yields under conservation tillage for 4 years. The cropping sequences were triticale (T)-cotton (C)-T-C, T-soybean (S)-T-S, and T-C-T-S. Numbers of Meloidogsne incognita second-stage juveniles declined on trificale but increased on cotton and soybean each year. Root-gall indices of cotton and soybean ranged from 1.00 to 1.08 (1 to 5 scale: 1 = 0%, 2 = 1% to 25%, 3 = 26% to 50%, 4 = 51% to 75%, and 5 = 76% to 100% of roots galled) each year and were not affected by fenamiphos treatment or cropping sequence. Numbers of Pratylenchus brachyurus were maintained on trificale and generally increased more on soybean than on cotton. Population densities of Helicotylenchus dihystera were near or below detection levels in all plots during the first year and increased thereafter in untreated plots in the T-C-T-C and T-S-T-S sequences. Generally, yields of triticale in all cropping sequences declined over the years. Yields of cotton and soybean were not affected by fenamiphos at 6.7 kg a.i./ha. Cotton and soybean were grown successfully with little or no suppression in yields caused by nematodes in conservation tillage following triticale harvested for grain. Key words: conservation tillage, cotton, crop rotation, fenamiphos, Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum, Helicotylenchus dihystera, lesion nematode, management, Meloidogyne incognita, nematicide, nematode, Pratylenchus brachyurus, root-knot nematode, soybean, spiral nematode, triticale, Triticosecale.
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