Effect of Temperature on Pratylenchus penetrans Development
AbstractReproduction and development of Pratylenchus penetrans were studied on genetically transformed ladino clover roots. Solitary females developing on transformed roots in nutrient gellan gum medium (pH 5.5) deposited 1.2, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0 eggs per day at the respective temperatures of 17, 20, 25, 27, and 30ºC. The number of eggs deposited was highly correlated with temperature. A reduction in egg-laying rates at the start of hatching was observed at all temperatures. Juvenile mortality was higher at 17ºC (50.4%), 20ºC (50.3%), and 30ºC (58.4%) than at 25ºC (34.6%) and 27ºC (37.6%). Life-cycle (egg deposition to egg deposition) duration was 46, 38, 28, 26, and 22 days at the respective temperatures. The developmental zero degrees (ºC) and the effective accumulative temperatures (degree-days) required for hatching, female emergence, and onset of oviposition (completion of one generation) of P. penetrans were estimated to be 2.7 and 200, 4.2 and 548, and 5.1 and 564, respectively. Pratylenchus penetrans reproduces over a wide range of temperatures. Key words: degree-day, developmental zero degree, egg-laying rate, effective accumulative temperature, ladino clover, life cycle, nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, reproduction, transformed hairy root.
Copyright and Permissions
All material published by the Society of Nematologists (SON), except for papers prepared by United States and Canadian government employees, is copyrighted and protected under the U.S. copyright law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the term of copyright for materials registered by an organization is 75 years from the date first published. Before publishing any manuscript, SON requires that authors transfer full and complete ownership of any copyright to SON by signing a JON Page Charge/Copyright Form (.pdf). SON then registers the copyright. Subsequent use of published materials requires written permission from the SON and may be obtained by contacting the current Editor-in-Chief and state where and how the material will be used.
The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant. If portions of the article have been published previously, then the author warrants that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder and the author will submit a copy of the permission release with this copyright transfer form.
SON shall claim no proprietary right other than copyright. Authors and coauthors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal noncommercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).