Position of Pharyngeal Gland Outlets in Monhysteridae (Nemata)
AbstractIn this study an attempt was made to determine the position of the outlets and nuclei of the pharyngeal glands in four monhysterid genera. Five Eumonhystera spp., seven Monhystera spp., and eight Monhystrella spp. were studied under the light microscope. Longitudinal sections of an undescribed Monhystera sp. and cross sections of Geomonhystera ckisjuncta were also studied under the scanning and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results of the light microscopic studies were inconclusive about the position of the outlets but showed a number of nuclei in the basal part of the pharynx. The scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies revealed five pharyngeal glands and their outlets; their position was as follows: dorsal gland outlet at the base of buccal tooth, first pair of ventrosublateral gland outlets halfway along the pharynx, and second pair of ventrosublateral gland outlets close to the base of the pharynx. It is concluded that at least three, and possibly five, nuclei are in the basal part of the pharynx. This pattern, in the position of the outlets and nuclei, is similar to that in Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas, 1900) Dougherty, 1953 and may well be the basic plan in the Class Chromadorea (including Secernentia as a subclass). Key words: Geomonhystera, Monhystera, Monhysterida, morphology, nematode systematics, pharyngeal gland outlet, pharynx, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultrastructure.
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