Ectoparasitic Acugutturid Nematodes of Adult Lepidoptera
AbstractNoctuidonema guyaneme is an interesting ectoparasite of adult Lepidoptera that feeds on hosts from at least five families with its long stylet. Noctuidonema guyanense spends its entire life on the adult moth and is sustained as it is passed from moth to moth during host mating. Overlapping host generations are essential for parasite survival. This nematode occurs throughout tropical and subtropical America and is transported by at least one of its hosts, Spodopterafrugiperda, during migration to northern sites in the United States each spring. Noctuidonema guyanense debilitates its hosts. Research conducted to help determine the biological control importance of this nematode is reviewed. Two additional species, N. daptria and N. dibolia, are now known for Noctuidonema. Keywords: Aphelenchoididae, biological control, distribution, ecology, ectoparasite, entomopathogenic nematode, fall armyworm, host range, Noctuidonema guyanense, Spodoptera frugiperda.
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