Dormancy of Heterodera glycines in Missouri
AbstractA 2-year study was conducted in field microplots to determine the relative importance of soybean phenology and soil temperature on induction of dormancy in Heterodera glycines in Missouri. Four near-isogenic soybean lines differing for maturity date were planted in microplots infested with a race 5 isolate of H. glycines. Soil temperature was monitored at a depth of 15 cm. Eggs of H. glycines, extracted from cysts collected monthly from each microplot, were used in hatching tests and bioassays to determine dormancy. Egg hatching and second-stage juvenile (J2) infectivity rates decreased sharply from their highest levels in midsummer (July-August) to a low level by October of each year and remained low ( 10% hatching and 0.2 J2/cm root) until May or June of the following year. The patterns of numbers of females and eggs in the bioassays were similar. The decreases were not related to soil temperature and did not differ consistently among soybean isolines. The monophasic changes in all nematode responses with peak midsummer rates suggest that H. glycines produces one primary generation per year in central Missouri. Changes in hatching rates and the timing of minimum and maximum rates suggested that H. glycines eggs exhibit more than one type of dormancy. Key words: diapause, dormancy, Glycine max, hatching, infectivity, Heterodera glycines, nematode, soybean cyst nematode, survival, viability.
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