Effects of Insecticides on Movement, Nictation, and Infectivity of Steinernema carpocapsae
AbstractMovement, nictation, and infectivity of Steinernema carpocapsae strain All were compared for ensheathed (EnJ) and desheathed (DeJ) infective juveniles exposed to the insecticides acephate, dichlorvos, methomyl, oxamyl, or permethrin. Nematode response to various solutions included normal sinusoidal movement, uncoordinated motion, twitching, convulsion or formation of a pretzel shape, an inactive "S" posture with fine twitching, or a quiescent straight posture. The DeJ displayed these movements at lower concentrations of each insecticide than did EnJ. In petri dish bioassays, insecticide-treated EnJ caused generally lower mortality in the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, than did EnJ alone but caused greater insect mortality than did insecticides alone. Nematode response to chemicals was more clearly demonstrated by nictating behavior than by the movement bioassay. Nictation of DeJ was suppressed by the test chemicals at low concentrations, except for acephate and permethrin. Nictating EnJ or DeJ, regardless of chemical treatment, killed host insects faster than did non-nictating juveniles. Insecticides that enhance nictating behavior at certain concentrations may be used for mixed applications with nematodes. Key words: acephate, behavior, dichlorvos, entomopathogenic nematode, infective juvenile, insecticide, methomyl, mixed application, movement, nematode, nictation, oxamyl, permethrin, Spodoptera litura, Steinernema carpocapsae.
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