Use of Nematodes as Biomonitors of Nonfumigant Nematicide Movement through Field Soil
AbstractThree field experiments were established in a loamy sand soil in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina to determine downward movement of aldicarb and fenamiphos with a nematode bioassay. Penetration of bioassay plant roots by Meloidogyne incognita was measured at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment in the greenhouse as a means of determining nematicide effectiveness. Chemical movement was similar in planted and fallow soil. Nematicidal activity was greater in soil collected from the 0 to 10 cm depth than from the 10 to 20 cm depth. Fenamiphos suppressed host penetration by the nematode more than aldicarb under the high rainfall (19 cm) and low soil temperatures that occurred soon after application in the spring. During the summer, which had 13 cm precipitation and warmer soil temperatures, both chemicals performed equally well at the 0 to 10 cm depth. At the lower soil level (10 to 20 cm), aldicarb limited nematode penetration of host roots more quickly than fenamiphos. Both of these chemicals moved readily in the sandy soil in concentrations sufficient to control M. incognita. Although some variability was encountered in similar experiments, nematodes such as M. incognita have considerable potential as biomonitors of nematicide movement in soil. Key words: aldicarb, chemical movement, fenamiphos, Glycine max, Meloidogyne incognita, nematicide, nematode, root-knot nematode, soybean.
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