Effects of Cycloate on Development of Heterodera schachtii and Growth of Three Beta Species
AbstractGreenhouse tests were set up to evaluate the effects of the herbicide, cycloate (S-ethyl cydohexylethylthiocarbamate), oil development of Heterodera schachtii and growth of three Beta species. Cycloate added to infested soil enhanced cyst development/gm root on B. vulgaris and larvae/gm of root in B. patellaris and B. procumbens at 4, 16, and 16 [mu]g(a.i.)/gm of soil, respectively. Total numbers of nematodes/individual root system decreased because of poor root growth of seedlings in cycloate-amended soil. Penetration and larval development through stage three did occur in the wild Beta species in any treatment. Thus, resistance of B. patellaris and B. pocumbens to development of H. schachtii was not altered by cycloate. Cycloate also retarded growth (P = 0.05) of the sugarbeet cultivars and B. patellaris at 4 [mu]g(a.i.)/gm and B. procumbens at 16 [mu]g(a.i.)/gm of soil. Higher concentrations of nematodes/gm root in plants growing in cycloate-amended soil may be attributed to factors such as fewer roots available for penetration, possible effects of cycloate on egg hatch, greater attraction of nematodes to roots, and increased susceptibility of roots to larval penetration. Suppression of seedling growth in cycloate-amended soil may be attributed in part to higher nematode density and in part to direct root damage from cycloate. Key Woqds: Beta vulgaris (cv. 'Mono Hy A1' and 'Mono Hy D2'), B. procumbens, B. patellaris, nematode development, phytotoxicity, predisposition.
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