Laboratory Wind Tunnel Tests of Nine Insecticides Against Adult Culicoides Species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)
AbstractNine insecticides were tested against field collected adult sand flies in a non-thermal wind tunnel. Culicoides mississippiensis Hoffman represented more than 90% of the total sand flies tested. The insecticides included 5 organophosphate (OP) compounds (malathion, naled, fenitrothion, fenthion, and chlorpyrifos), 3 pyrethroids (resmethrin, phenothrin and permethrin) and a combination of malathion/resmethrin (90:1). Mortality was recorded at 1, 4, and 24 h posttreatment. Malathion, the standard, was intermediate among the OP compounds in effectiveness at the 24-h, LC@^90, level. The OP compounds exhibited poor knockdown at the LC@^90 dosage levels and the addition of resmethrin to malathion only slightly increased the knockdown of malathion. The pyrethroids exhibited nearly 100% knockdown 1 h posttreatment at both the LC@^50 and LC@^90 levels, but some individual sand fly recovery occurred 24 h later.
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