Starvation time and predatory efficiency of spider species on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)

  • Tufail Ahmed Wagan Department of Entomology, Plant Science and Technology Collage, Huazhong Agriculture University, Wuhan, China
  • Xiang Li Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
  • Hongxia Hua Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
  • Wanlun Cai Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China

Abstract

Four predatory spider species, Leucauge venusta (Orchard) (Araneae: Tetragnathidae), Lycosa pseudoannulata (Boeset) (Araneae: Lycosidae), Larinioides cornutus (Clerck) (Araneae: Araneidae), and Tetragnatha shikokiana (Yaginuma) (Araneae: Tetragnathidae), were used to control Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the laboratory and greenhouse, and their longevity without food was observed. For the laboratory experiment, the spiders’ feeding capabilities were checked at 1, 4, 8, and 16 h of exposure in a 10 mL vial containing 50 five-d-old whiteflies. For the greenhouse experiment, the preys’ feeding ability was recorded at 24 and 48 h, with 100 five-d-old adult whiteflies in a screened cage. Individual spiders were kept in the lab in 10 mL vials, and their survival time was recorded every 5 h. Of the 4 spider species, L. pseudoannulata was the most active in the lab and consumed an average of 3.00 ± 0.22, 6.17 ± 0.27, 9.67 ± 0.43, and 13.50 ± 0.49 at 1, 4, 8, and 16 h of the bioassay, followed by L. venusta, L. cornutus, and T. shikokiana. However, in the greenhouse experiment, L. venusta consumed the greatest number of whiteflies, with an average of 24.66 and 51.33 (out of 100) at 24 and 48 h, respectively, followed by L. pseudoannulata, L. cornutus, and T. shikokiana. The maximum longevity was recorded for L. venusta with 26.67 h, followed by T. shikokiana, L. pseudoannulata, and L. cornutus without prey. All spider species killed and consumed adult whiteflies in both experiments, which suggests that they are a controlling tool in the natural ecosystem. The results from our experiment will contribute to the biological control of whitefly.

 

Resumen

Se utilizaron cuatro especies de arañas depredadoras, Leucauge venusta (Orchard) (Araneae: Tetragnathidae), Lycosa pseudoannulata (Boeset) (Araneae: Lycosidae), Larinioides cornutus (Clerck) (Araneae: Araneidae), y Tetragnatha shikokiana (Yaginuma) (Araneae: Tetragnathidae), contra Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) en el laboratorio y el invernadero, y se observó su longevidad sin alimentos. Para el experimento de laboratorio, la capacidad de alimentación de las arañas se verificaron a 1, 4, 8, y 16 h de exposición en un vial de 10 mL que contenía 50 moscas blancas que tenian cinco días de edad. Para el experimento de invernadero, la capacidad de alimentación de la presa se registró a las 24 y 48 h, con 100 moscas blancas adultas que tenian cinco días de edad en una jaula cribada. Las arañas se mantuvieron individualmente en el laboratorio en viales de 10 mL y su tiempo de sobrevivencia se registró cada 5 h. De las cuatro especies de arañas, L. pseudoannulata fue la más activa en el laboratorio y consumió un promedio de 3.00 ± 0.22, 6.17 ± 0.27, 9.67 ± 0.43, y 13.50 ± 0.49 a 1, 4, 8, y 16 h del bioensayo, seguido por L. venusta, L. cornutus, y T. shikokiana. Sin embargo, en el experimento de invernadero, L. venusta consumió el mayor número de moscas blancas, con un promedio de 24.66 y 51.33 (de 100) a las 24 y 48 h, respectivamente, seguido de L. pseudoannulata, L. cornutus, y T. shikokiana. La longevidad máxima se registró para L. venusta con 26.67 h, seguida de T. shikokiana, L. pseudoannulata, y L. cornutus sin presa. Todas las especies de arañas mataron y consumieron adultos de la mosca blanca en ambos experimentos, lo que sugiere que son una herramienta de control en el ecosistema natural. Los resultados de nuestro experimento contribuirán al control biológico de la mosca blanca.

Key Words: starvation; predation; spiders; whitefly

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Author Biography

Tufail Ahmed Wagan, Department of Entomology, Plant Science and Technology Collage, Huazhong Agriculture University, Wuhan, China
PhD Research Scholar, Entomology Department
Published
2020-02-02
Section
Research Papers