Diuris species exhibit a large amount of morphological variation, resulting in a lack of unique characters and hence difficulties in assessing phylogenetic relationships. This study used direct sequencing of the nuclear ITS and plastid trnT-F regions for assessment of the phylogenetic relationships among some closely related Diuris species from the state of Victoria, Australia. Yellow-and purple-flowered Diuris species formed well-supported monophyletic sister clades. Relationships within the purple-flowered clade, including Diuris fragrantissima, were unresolved and purple-flowered species in the "punctata" group sampled for this study are genetically very closely related. This study will have implications for the conservation of Diuris fragrantissima and the location of a suitable mycorrhizal symbiont for reintroduction of this critically endangered species.
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