Tillandsia califanii is an endemic epiphytic bromeliad from the Tehuacán-Zapotitlán-Cuicatlán region, Puebla, México. Its basic reproductive patterns and distribution are poorly documented. The authors studied its distribution in two natural populations in the Zapotitlán Valley and performed a series of laboratory experiments to determine the basic culture conditions to determine a propagation strategy. In nature, T. califanii commonly propagates asexually producing up to four plantlets per mother plant. Most T. califanii individuals (90%) use Beaucarnea gracilis as phorophyte, and only 2% live on the columnar cacti Cephalocereus columna-trajani. Almost 50% of the T. califanii populations include individuals measuring 20-40 cm in height, considered as adult individuals in reproductive stage. Flowering occurs August-October. Inflorescence, formed by a spike, reaches 60 cm in height and produces an average of 20 capsules and up to 2000 seeds per spike. Seeds disperse late February-May. Viability tests show that most seeds contained a highly damaged embryo, which contributed to low survival. The low germination and survival observed in the field may be associated to the endemism of T. califanii, thus resulting in a genetically vulnerable species.