In 1934, M. Burret published a classification ofBaetris in which he segregated Guilielma and Pyrenoglyphis and in which he recognized two subgenera, four sections, and two subsections within Baetris s. str. His support ofGuilielma, which includes the edible species centered around B. gasipaes, has sustained a long-standing controversy. Herein, this classification is tested by applying parsimony-based cladistic analyses to 49 representative species-level OTU'S, scored for 106 characters, which were polarized by the outgroup genera, Astroearyum and Desmoncus. Baetris is monophyletic only ifneither Guilielma nor Pyrenoglyphis is segregated. Burret's subgenus and section Baetris are paraphyletic because his other taxa are nested within them. The cladistic analysis suggests there are four major clades, none ofwhich corresponds directly to Burret's groups. Three ofthe four are strongly supportedby autapomorphies. Because the interrelationships among the major clades are based on a few, homoplasious synapomorphies, segregation ofany clade is unwarranted. Several other well-marked constituent clades, some ofwhich correspond to Burret's groups, are nested within the major clades. The analysis reveals that Burret weighted too heavily certain characters and incorporated too few ofthe cladistica11y most reliable characters. The reliable characters are components ofdiverse organs but are concentrated in a suite associated with the fruits; they include: presence ofan ocrea, petiolar spines in three ranks, structure ofleaflet apices, structure ofrachis bracts and rachillae, arrangements ofthe reduced cincinni, structure ofstaminate petals and stamens, shape
and indument of pistillate corollas, presence of a staminodial ring, fruit shape, epicarp color, mesocarp
composition, endocarp shape, andthe structure and attachment ofendocarp fibers. The remaining characters
are consistent only at lower taxonomic levels and deserve more detailed analysis in future monographic
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