SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF <I>BELONOLAIMUS LONGICADATUS</I> IN BERMUDAGRASS
Keywords:Belonolaimus longicaudatus, bermudagrass, Cynodon sp., nematode, population fluctuations, root growth, soil temperature, sting nematode, turfgrass
AbstractSeasonal fluctuations of Belonolaimus longicaudatus in bermudagrass. Nematropica 39:99-110. Sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) is an important pest of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), and other turfgrasses grown in the southeastern United States. On bermudagrass, B. longicaudatus causes severe damage to lateral roots, decreased water and nutrient uptake, and decreased rates of evapotranspiration leading to reduced turf quality, color, and density. Field experiments from January 2005 to March 2007 were conducted to monitor the seasonal dynamics of B. longicaudatus populations, bermudagrass root growth, and soil temperatures on four bermudagrass fairways in Florida in order to develop an empirical optimum time for nematicide application. Seasonal fluctuations in B. longicaudatus and root growth varied among locations and years, but similar trends were observed in all four trials for nematodes and root growth. Linear regression models relating root length to nematode population densities (0-15 cm depth) were significant (P ≤ 0.1) at three of four sites. At the University of Florida Ft. Lauderdale Research and Education Center site, root length and nematode population were correlated (P ≤ 0.1) in April and May. However at the Ironwood Golf Course site, root length was related to nematode population (P ≤ 0.1) in June, September, and October. At the Sandpiper Golf Club site, root length and B. longicaudatus population densities were significantly related (P ≤ 0.1) only in July. However, regression analysis did not provide consistent predictive models to characterize relationships between B. longicaudatus and root length.