Efficacy of foliar applications of entomopathogenic nematodes against the crucifer diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella - a review
AbstractDiamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) is a serious pest of cruciferous crops. It has developed resistance against several chemical pesticides and Bt toxins. Management of diamondback moth through suitable bio-agents is an effective alternative to chemical pesticides. The present review highlights the potential of foliar applications of entomopathogenic nematodes for the management of diamondback moth on cruciferous crops and describes factors affecting nematode efficacy, developments in application technology, and field application of entomopathogenic nematodes against this pest. Since the first specific work on diamondback moth management through entomopathogenic nematodes in 1995, considerable progress has been made in understanding and improving the performance of these nematodes against this pest. Progress has been systematic, from standardization of dosages to research on application technology, including uses of different sprayers and adjuvants, and actual application of entomopathogenic nematodes in the field. However, integration of entomopathogenic nematodes with Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes still needs to be worked upon, and will determine the direction of future research.