Occurrence and distribution of species of the Heterodera avenae group in Syria and Turkey


  • H. Abidou
  • A. El-Ahmed
  • J. M. Nicol
  • N. Bolat
  • R. Rivoal
  • A. Yahyaoui


A survey of cyst nematodes showed that 69.9% and 80% of cereal fields were infested, respectively, in Syria and Turkey. Based on morphometrics, three species belonging to the Heterodera avenae group were identified. In Syria, Heterodera latipons was the dominant species, being found in 96% of the cereal fields; Heterodera avenae has a very limited distribution, being found in only three fields of northern and central regions. Heterodera filipjevi was detected for the first time in one barley field in Northern Syria near the Turkish border. In Turkey, H. filipjevi and H. latipons were widely distributed in the Central Anatolian Plateau occurring as single species in 37.5% and 33.3% of infested fields, respectively, and as species mixtures in 29.2% of infested fields. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic research prospects in this group of cyst nematodes and control methods based on the use of resistance genes in cereals are discussed.