A review of three species-level taxa of the Anthocharis sara complex (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Pierinae: Anthocharidini)
Keywords:Sara orangetip, Anthocharis thoosa, Anthocharis julia, caterpillar, pupae.
AbstractA combination of five characters supports the arrangement of three species in the Anthocharis sara complex (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Pierinae: Anthocharidini) consisting of Anthocharis sara Lucas, 1852 (Sara orangetip), Anthocharis thoosa Scudder, 1878 (southwestern orangetip), and Anthocharis julia W.H. Edwards, 1872 (Julia orangetip). These five characters include adult phenotypes, fifth instar larval coloration, pupal cone curvature and color, number of overwintering cycles, and interspecific contact zone behavior. This taxonomic treatment is generated from extensive life history studies from 12 western U.S. states through most of the sara complex distribution.