More than Tweed Jackets and Beards: An Analysis of the Hashtag Campaign #ILookLikeAProfessor
The focus of this study was to identify themes that emerged on the publicly-posted #ILookLikeAProfessor hashtag Twitter campaign during August 2015. This qualitative content analysis explored tweets (n=1,855) from www.twitter.com/#ILookLikeAProfessor. Through qualitative open and inductive coding methods, four major themes were derived from the Twitter campaign among participants: 1) discussing diversity, 2) addressing appearance, 3) identifying self, and 4) using visual support. Researchers offer ideas for future study about this campaign and hashtag activism.
Adbusters. (2011). #OCCUPYWALLSTREET: A shift in revolutionary tactics. Retrieved from http://www.commondreams.org/views/2011/07/16/occupywallstreet-shift-revolutionary-tactics
Alter, C. (2015, February). Reese Witherspoon slams sexist red carpet questions, encourages journalists to #AskHerMore. Time. Retrieved from http://time.com/3718008/oscars-2015-askhermore-reese-witherspoon/
Amnesty International. (2018). Troll Patrol Report. Retrieved from Amnesty International website: https://decoders.amnesty.org/projects/troll-patrol/findings#introduction
Aronson, P. (2003). Feminist or “postfeminist?” Young women’s attitudes toward feminism and gender relations. Gender and Society, 17(5), 903-922.
Aultman, L. P., Williams-Johnson, M. R., & Achutz, P. A. (2009). Boundary dilemmas in teacher-student relationships: Struggling with ’the line.’ Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(5), 636-646. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2008.10.002
Barton, J. (2014). To hashtag or not to hashtag. The Grocer, 237(8179), 22.
Baslow, S. A., & Silberg, N. T. (1987). Student evaluations of college professors: Are female and male professors rated differently. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 308-314. http://dx.doi.org
Bennett, J. (2017, November 30). The #MeToo moment: When the blinders come off. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/30/us/the-metoo-moment.html?action=click&module=RelatedCoverage&pgtype=Article®ion=Footer
Bennett, S. (1982). Student perceptions of and expectations for male and female instructors: Evidence relating to the question of gender bias in teaching evaluation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 170-179. http://dx.doi.org
Best, J. B., & Addison, W. E. (2000). A preliminary study of perceived warmth of professor and student evaluations. Teaching of Psychology, 27, 60-62.
Burns, A., & Eltham, B. (2009). Twitter free Iran: An evaluation of Twitter’s role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran’s 2009 election crisis. Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009, 298-310. Retrieved from http://vuir.vu.edu.au/15230/1/CPRF09BurnsEltham.pdf
Chatelain, A. M. (2015). The effects of academics’ dress and gender on student perceptions of instructor approachability and likeability. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 37(4), 413-423.
Cheong, M., & Lee, V. (2010). Twittering for Earth: A study on the impact of microblogging activism on Earth hour 2009 in Australia. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5991, 114-123.
Christensen, C. (2011). Twitter revolutions? Addressing social media and dissent. Communication Review, 14(3), 155-157.
Clavio, G., & Kian, T. M. (2010). Uses and gratification of a retired female athlete’s Twitter followers. International Journal of Sport Communication, 3, 485-500.
Connell, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829-859. doi: 10.1177/0891243205278639
Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Croeser, S., & Highfield, T. (2014, March 3). Occupy Oakland and the #OO: Uses of Twitter within the Occupy movement. First Monday, 19(3), 1-12. Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/article/view/4827/3846. doi:10.5210/fm.v19i3.4827
Crossley, A. D. (2010). “When it suits me, I’m a feminist:” International students negotiating feminist representations. Women’s Studies International Forum, 33, 125-133. Drell, L. (2014). Hashtags and infographics and videos! Oh my! Marketing Insights, 26(2), 40-47.
Duggan, M. (2015). Mobile Messaging and Social Media 2015. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/08/19/mobile-messaging-and-social-media-2015/2015-08-19_social-media-update_11/
Dyer, S., & Hurd, F. (2018). Changing perceptions about feminist and (still not) claiming a feminist identity. Gender and Education, 30(4), 435-449. Doi: 10.1080/09540253.2016.1216524
Edrington, C. L., & Lee, N. M. (2018). Tweeting a social movement: Black Lives Matter and its use of Twitter to share information, build community, and promote action. Journal of Public Interest Communications, 2(2). Retrieved from http://journals.fcla.edu/jpic/article/view/106120/102293
Elo, S., & Kyngäs, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62, 107-115. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x
Finkelstein, M. J., Conley, V. M., & Schuster, J. H. (2016). Taking the Measure of Faculty Diversity (Research Overview, TIAA Institute). Retrieved from https://www.tiaainstitute.org/sites/default/files/presentations/2017-02/taking_the_measure_of_faculty_diversity.pdf
Flaherty, C. (2018, July 2). Bye, bye, chili pepper. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/07/02/rate-my-professors-ditches-its-chili-pepper-hotness-quotient
Frederick, E., Lim, C. H., Clavio, G., Pedersen, P. M., & Burch, L. (2014). Choosing between the one-way or two-way street: A exploration of relationship by professional athletes on Twitter. Communication & Sport, 2(1), 80-99.
Freelon, D., McIlwain, C. D., & Clark, M. (2016, February 29). Beyond the hashtags: #Ferguson, #Blacklivesmatter, and the online struggle for offline justice. Center for Media & Social Impact, American University, Forthcoming. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=2747066.
Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Anchor Books.
Hambrick, M., Simmons, J., Greenhalgh, G., & Greenwell, C. (2010). Understanding professional athletes’ use of Twitter: A content analysis of athlete tweets. International Journal of Sports Communication, 3, 454-471.
Harlow, S. (2012). Social media and social movements: Facebook and an online Guatemalan justice movement that moved offline. New Media & Society, 14(2), 225-243.
Harlow, S., & Johnson, T. J. (2011). Overthrowing the protest paradigm? How the New York Times, Global Voices, and Twitter covered the Egyptian Revolution. International Journal of Communication, 5, 1359-1374. Retrieved from http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/1239/611
Harris, M., James, J., Chavez, J., Fuller, M., Kent, S., Massanari, C., ... Walsh, F. (1983). Clothing: Communication, compliance, and choice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 13, 88-97.
Henderson, C. & Stern, D. (2014). (Mis)Representing Gender Politics: An Intersectional Feminist Exploration of the Miss Representation Movement. Women & Language Online, 37(1). Retrieved from https://misrepresentinggenderpolitics.wordpress.com/
Herman, J. (2014, December 11). Hashtags and human rights: Activism in the age of Twitter. Newsweek. Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com/hashtags-and-human-rights-activism-age-twitter-290950
Hogan, B. (2010). The presentation of self in the age of social media: Distinguishing performances and exhibitions online. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 30(6), 377-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0270467610385893
Holden, V. M. (2016, February). The Natty Professor: Looking Like a Historian at #aha16. Perspectives on History. Retrieved from https://www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-on-history/february-2016/the-natty-professor-looking-like-a-historian-at-aha16
Hrabowski III, F. A., & Maton, K. A. (2009). Change Institutional Culture and You Change Who Goes Into Science. Academe, 95(3). 11-15.
IPEDS. (2013). Full Time Instructional Staff, by Faculty and Tenure Status, Academic Rank, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender (Degree Granting Institutions): Fall 2013. National Center for Educational Statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/Home/UseTheData
Kang, J. (2012). A volatile public: The 2009 Whole Foods boycott on Facebook. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 56(4), 562-577. doi: 10.1080/08838151.2012.732142
Kieslinger, B. (2015, June 1). Academic Peer pressure in social media: Experiences from the heavy, the targeted and the restricted. First Monday, 20(6), 1-17. Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org
Kristofferson, K., White, K., & Peloza, J. (2014). The nature of slacktivism: How the social observability of an initial act of token support affects subsequent prosocial action. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(6), 1149–1166. https://doi-org.zeus.tarleton.edu/10.1086/674137
Lavin, A. M., Carr, D. L., & Davies, T. L. (2010, June). The male professor’s attire and student perceptions of instructional quality. American Journal of Business Education, 3(6), 51-62.
Leary, M. R., Tchividjian, L. R., & Kraxberger, B. E. (1994). Self-presentation can be hazardous to your health: impression management and health risk. Health Psychol, 13(6), 461-470.
Lebel, K., & Danylchuk, K. (2012). How tweet it is: A gendered analysis of professional tennis players’ self-presentation on Twitter. International Journal of Sports Communication, 5, 461-480.
Marini, A. (2015, August 13). People Are Fighting This Stereotype In Academia And Their Stories Are Cringe-Worthy. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://aplus.com/a/ilooklikeaprofessor-hashtag?no_monetization=true
Mendes, K. Ringrose, J., & Keller, J. (2018). #MeToo and the promise and pitfalls of challenging rape culture through digital feminist activism. European Journal of Women's Studies, 25(2), 236-246. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350506818765318
Metzger, A. H., Finley, K. N., Ulbrich, T. R., & McAuley, J. W. (2010). Pharmacy faculty members’ perspectives on the student/faculty relationship in online social networks. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 10(10). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3058463/
Meyer, R. (2016, July 21). Twitter's Famous Racist Problem. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/07/twitter-swings-the-mighty-ban-hammer/492209/
Moravec, M. (2015, August 9). I Look Like a Professor #ilooklikeaprofessor. The Synapse. Retrieved from https://medium.com/synapse/i-look-like-a-professor-ilooklikeaprofessor-dc1b109a2afb#.x1wbc2rz5
Munro, E. (n.d.) Feminism: A fourth wave? Political Studies Association. Retrieved from https://www.psa.ac.uk/insight-plus/feminism-fourth-wave
Nappi, C. (2015, August 14). #ILookLikeAProfessor: A Twitter Essay [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://carlanappi.com/2015/08/14/ilooklikeaprofessor-a-twitter-essay/
National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). The Condition of Education 2016 (NCES 2016-144), U.S. Department of Education, Characteristics of Postsecondary Faculty. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=61
Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Witcher, A. E., Collins, K. M., Filer, J. D., Wiedmaier, C. D., & Moore, C. W. (2007). Students’ perceptions of characteristics of effective college teachers: A validity study of teaching evaluation form using a mixed-methods analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 44, 113-160.
Ortega, T. (2015, August 11). Educators Fight Back Against Discrimination with #ILookLikeAProfessor. Elite Daily. Retrieved from http://elitedaily.com/news/educators-fight-descrimination-with-ilooklikeaprofessor-photos/1174493/
Poell, T., & Darmoni, K. (2012). Twitter as a multilingual space: The articulation of the Tunisian revolution through #sidibouzid. NECSUS: European Journal of Media Studies, 1(1). Retrieved from http://www.necsus-ejms.org/twitter-as-a-multilingual-space-the-articulation-of-the-tunisian-revolution-through-sidibouzid-by-thomas-poell-and-kaouthar-darmoni/
Pritchard, S. B., Koh, A., & Moravec, M. (2015). We Look Like Professors, Too. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2015/08/10/essay-explains-new-hashtag-campaign-draw-attention-diversity-professors-and-their
Radmacher, S. A., & Martin, D. J. (2001). Identifying significant predictors of student evaluations of faculty through hierarchical regression analysis. Journal of Psychology, 135, 259-268. doi: 10.1080/00223980109603696.
Risam, R. (2018). Diversity work and digital carework in higher education. First Monday, 23(3). doi:https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v23i3.8241
Ruiz, R. (2015, August 11). Stop thinking of professors as old white men dressed in tweed. Mashable. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2015/08/11/i-look-like-a-professor/#uep7NtPCegqu
Rutherford, F. (2015, August 11). People Are Fighting Against Stereotypes in Academia With #ILookLikeAProfessor. BuzzFeed. Retrieved from https://www.buzzfeed.com/fionarutherford/people-are-fighting-against-stereotypes-in-academia-with-ilo?utm_term=.wlXW8Zqlr#.xvG0g2pJr
Samuels, B. (2011). Facebook, Twitter, YouTube—and democracy. Academe, 97(4), 32-34.
Schram, T.H. (2006). Conceptualizing and proposing qualitative research. Pearson: Upper Saddle River, N.J.
Stache, L. (2015). Advocacy and political potential at the convergence of hashtag activism and commerce. Feminist Media Studies, 15(1), 162-164. doi: 10.1080/14680777.2015.987429
TAGS Searchable Twitter Archive (n. d.) Retrieved February 12, 2017 from http://hawksey.info/tagsexplorer/arc.html?key=12nk19MZ2Vl-JQwSFoOxky1S_F6STawyGoHHuXdDs30k&gid=400689247
Watkins, B., & Lewis, R. (2016). I am woman, but not roaring: An examination of similarities and differences in how male and female professional athletes are using Twitter. The Journal of Social Media in Society, 5(3), 5-35. Retrieved from http://thejsms.org/index.php/TSMRI/article/view/184
Weathers, M., Sanderson, J., Matthey, P., Grevious, A., Warren, S., & Tehan, M. (2014). The tweet life of Erin and Kirk: A gendered analysis of professional sports broadcasters’ self-presentation on Twitter. Journal of Sports Media, 9(2), 1-24.
Weller, M. (2012, April 29). The virtues of blogging as scholarly activity. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.chronicle.com/article/The-Virtues-of-Blogging-as/131666/?sid=at
By submitting to the Journal of Public Interest Communications, the author(s) agree to the terms of the Author Agreement. All authors retain copyrights associated with their article contributions and agree to make such contributions available under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY NC) 4.0 upon publication.
This agreement takes effect upon acceptance of the Submission for publication in JPIC.
- I hereby grant to the University of Florida (“the University”) the non-exclusive right to retain, reproduce and distribute the Submission in whole or in part, in print and electronic format and in any medium. This agreement does not represent a transfer of copyright to the University.
- The University may make and keep multiple copies of the work for purposes of security, backup, preservation and access; and may migrate the work to any medium or format for the purpose of preservation and access.
- I represent and warrant to the University that the work is my original work and that I have the authority as sole author or I have the authority on behalf of my co-authors to grant the rights contained in this agreement. I also represent that the work does not, to the best of my knowledge, infringe or violate any rights of others.
- I further represent and warrant that I have obtained all necessary rights to permit the University to reproduce and distribute the work, including any third-party material. Alternatively, I represent that my use of any third-party material is allowed because the material is not in copyright or I have performed a fair use analysis and reasonably believe my use is permitted. Any content owned by a third party is clearly identified and acknowledged within the work.
- I grant these same rights to the George A. Smathers Libraries at the University of Florida. Additionally, I grant the right to both the University and Smathers Libraries to enter into agreements with third-party entities and the rights necessary to host, print, index and abstract the Submission.
Open Access and Self-Archiving
JPIC follows an open-access publishing model, meaning that all articles will be publicly accessible on the Internet immediately upon publication. I understand that I may share the submitted manuscript (preprint) of the Submission on the Internet at any point before or after publication, with a citation and link to the final version of record to be added as soon as the issue is available. I may disseminate the final peer-reviewed version at any point after publication.
Creative Commons License
JPIC applies a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY NC) 4.0 to encourage sharing and reuse of content and to maximize the impact of published research. By publishing in JPIC, I agree that the terms of this license will be applied to the Submission. Smathers Libraries (firstname.lastname@example.org) may be able to offer additional information.
By granting this license, I acknowledge that I have read and agreed to the terms of this agreement.