Grafting and Paladin Pic-21 for Nematode and Weed Management in Vegetable Production
AbstractTwo years of field trials conducted in a Meloidogyne incognita-infested field evaluated grafting and Paladin Pic-21 (dimethyl disulfide:chloropicrin [DMDS:Pic] 79:21) for root-knot nematode and weed control in tomato and melon. Tomato rootstocks evaluated were; ‘TX301’, ‘Multifort’, and ‘Aloha’. ‘Florida 47’ was the scion and the nongrafted control. A double crop of melon was planted into existing beds following tomato harvest. Melon rootstocks, C. metulifer and ‘Tetsukabuto’, were evaluated with nongrafted ‘Athena’ in year 1. In year 2, watermelon followed tomato with scion variety ‘Tri-X Palomar’ as the control and also grafted onto ‘Emphasis’ and ‘Strongtosa’ rootstocks. Four soil treatments were applied in fall both years under Canslit metalized film; Paladin Pic-21, methyl bromide:chloropicrin (MeBr:C33, 67:33), Midas (iodomethane:chloropicrin 50:50), and a herbicide-treated control. M. incognita J2 in soil were highest in herbicide control plots and nongrafted tomato. All soil treatments produced similar tomato growth, which was greater than the herbicide control. All treatments reduced M. incognita J2 in roots compared to the herbicide control. ‘Multifort’ rootstock produced the largest and healthiest roots; however, the number of M. incognita isolated from roots did not differ among the tomato rootstocks tested. Galling on tomato was highest in herbicide control plots and nongrafted plants. In melon, M. incognita J2 in soil did not differ among melon rootstocks, but numbers isolated from melon rootstocks increased in ‘Tetsukabuto’ compared with C. metuliferus. ‘Tetsukabuto’ were larger root systems than nongrafted ‘Athena’. All fumigants provided protection for all melon rootstocks against galling by M. incognita compared to the herbicide control. Galling on C. metuliferus rootstock was less in all fumigant treatments compared with nongrafted ‘Athena’ and ‘Tetsukabuto’. In watermelon, M. incognita in soil and roots did not differ among soil treatments or watermelon rootstocks, and yield was lower in both grafted rootstocks compared with the nongrafted control. All soil treatments increased average fruit weight of watermelon compared with the herbicide control, and provided effective weed control, keeping the most predominant weed, purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.), density at or below 1/m row. Grafting commercial scions onto M. incognita-resistant rootstocks has potential for nematode management combined with soil treatments or as a stand-alone component in crop production systems.
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