Evidence for Horizontally Transferred Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Vitamin B1, B5, and B7 in <I>Heterodera glycines</I>
AbstractHeterodera glycines is a nematode that is highly adapted to manipulate and parasitize plant hosts. The molecular players involved in these interactions have only recently begun to be identified. Here, the sequencing of the second stage juvenile transcriptome, followed by a bioinformatic screen for novel genes, identified seven new genes involved in biosynthesis and salvage of vitamins B1, B5, and B7. With no confirmed reports in the literature, each of these biosynthesis pathways is believed to have been lost in multicellular animals. However, eukaryotic-like introns in the genomic sequences of the genes confirmed eukaryotic origin and nematode-specific splice leaders found on five of the cDNAs confirmed their nematode origin. Two of the genes were found to be flanked by known nematode sequences and quantitative polymerase chain reactions on individual nematodes showed similar and consistent amplification between the vitamin B biosynthesis genes and other known H. glycines genes. This further confirmed their presence in the nematode genome. Similarity to bacterial sequences at the amino acid level suggested a prokaryotic ancestry and phylogenetic analysis of the genes supported a likely horizontal gene transfer event, suggesting H. glycines re-appropriated the genes from the prokaryotic kingdom. This finding complements the previous discovery of a vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathway within the nematode. However, unlike the complete vitamin B6 pathway, many of these vitamin B pathways appear to be missing the initial enzymes required for full de novo biosynthesis, suggesting that initial substrates in the pathways are obtained exogenously. These partial vitamin B biosynthesis enzymes have recently been identified in other single-celled eukaryotic parasites and on rhizobia symbiosis plasmids, indicating that they may play an important role in host-parasite interactions and survival within the plant environment.
Copyright and Permissions
All material published by the Society of Nematologists (SON), except for papers prepared by United States and Canadian government employees, is copyrighted and protected under the U.S. copyright law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the term of copyright for materials registered by an organization is 75 years from the date first published. Before publishing any manuscript, SON requires that authors transfer full and complete ownership of any copyright to SON by signing a JON Page Charge/Copyright Form (.pdf). SON then registers the copyright. Subsequent use of published materials requires written permission from the SON and may be obtained by contacting the current Editor-in-Chief and state where and how the material will be used.
The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant. If portions of the article have been published previously, then the author warrants that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder and the author will submit a copy of the permission release with this copyright transfer form.
SON shall claim no proprietary right other than copyright. Authors and coauthors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal noncommercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).