<I>Xiphinema bernardi</I> n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Great Smoky Mountain National Park

  • R. T. Robbins
  • Chang-Hwan Bae
  • Weimin Ye
  • Majid Pedram
Keywords: DNA sequencing, ITS, juveniles, molecular phylogeny, morphometrics, nematode, Smoky Mountains National Park, taxonomy, Xiphinema bernardi n. sp


In October 1985 during a survey of fauna of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Ernest Bernard recovered a limited number of specimens of a non-described species of Xiphinema (Nematoda: Longidoridae) and sent them to the senior author. The species is distinct from other species by its large size and having Z-organs in the genital tract. During July 2006, Dr. Bernard's survey crew took samples in the area where the species was first found and was successful in finding it again. Without Dr. Bernard's efforts, this species could not have been described and thus the new species is named X. bernardi n. sp. in his honor. Several female and juvenile specimens of the new species were recovered in a sample from a mixed forest of maple, hemlock, and silverbell. It is distinct from all others in Xiphinema group 4 species (with Z-organs) by having a longer total stylet length, 259.8 to 284.2 mm vs < 253 mm for all other species in this group. Xiphinema bernardi n. sp. is distinctive because of its long body length (4.45 to 6.00 mm), tail shape, and c' ratio. Of the group 4 species, it most closely resembles X. phoenicis. Second, third and fourth stage juvenile descriptions and morphometrics are included. The polytomous key code for X. bernardi n. sp. is A4-B1-C6-D56-E56-F(4)5-G4-H2-I34-J5-K?-L1. Molecular approaches using the internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA suggested that X. bakeri and X. diversicaudatum are the most closely related species from the species examined.