Effect of Liquid Swine Manure on Hatch and Viability of <I>Heterodera glycines</I>
Keywords:ammonia, fatty acid, Glycine max, hatch, Heterodera glycines, mortality, swine manure, soybean, soybean cyst nematode
AbstractExperiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse to determine the effect of raw and anaerobically digested liquid swine manures on the hatch and viability of Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode. Anaerobic digestion was performed for 15 and 35 days to enrich volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonium (NH4+), respectively. All filtrates of the raw, VFA-enriched, and NH4+-enriched manures at 10-1 to 250-1 dilutions inhibited H. glycines hatch, and the reduction of hatch was increased with increasing concentration of the manure. Cumulative hatch at day 21 was only 2.1% to 3.7% in the 10-1 dilution manures, while the hatch in water was 21% to 27.3%. The high concentrations appeared to be lethal to some eggs. Most second-stage juveniles (J2) of H. glycines were killed when incubated for 8 hours in the manure filtrate at the original concentration (>90% mortality) or for 48 hours at the 64-1 dilution (> 82% mortality). When J2 were treated with the manures at 10-1 to 250-1 dilutions for 4 hours, only the 10-1 dilution of VFA-enriched and raw manures resulted in a lower number of J2 that penetrated soybean roots as compared with lower concentrations. The VFA-enriched manure was the best, raw manure intermediate, and NH4+-enriched manure the least effective in inhibiting H. glycines hatch and killing eggs and J2.
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