Saline Irrigation Affects Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Hoplolaimus galeatus on Seashore Paspalum

  • A. C. Hixson
  • W. T. Crow
  • R. McSorley
  • L. E. Trenholm
Keywords: belonolaimus longicaudatus, hoplolaimus galeatus, lance nematode, paspalum vaginatum, salinity, seashore paspalum, sting nematode


Seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) has great potential for use in salt-affected turfgrass sites. Use of this grass on golf courses, athletic fields, and lawns in subtropical coastal areas may aid in conservation of freshwater resources. Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Hoplolaimus galeatus are considered among the most damaging root pathogens of turfgrasses in Florida. Glasshouse experiments were performed in 2002 and 2003 to examine the effects of increasing levels of irrigation salinity on B. longicaudatus and H. galeatus. Irrigation treatments were formulated by concentrating deionized water to six salinity levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 dS/m). Final population densities of H. galeatus followed a negative linear regression (r² = 0.92 and 0.83; P = 0.01) with increasing salinity levels. Final population densities of B. longicaudatus were quadratically (r² = 0.72 and 0.78; P = 0.01) related to increasing salinity levels from 0 to 25 dS/m. An increase in population densities of B. longicaudatus was observed at moderate salinity levels (10 and 15 dS/m) compared to 0 dS/m. Root-length comparisons revealed that B. longicaudatus caused root stunting at low salinity levels, 0 to 10 dS/m, but roots were not affected at 15 to 25 dS/m. These results indicate that the ability of B. longicaudatus to feed and stunt root growth was negatively affected at salinity levels of 15 dS/m and above.