Overwinter Population Dynamics of Heterodera glycines
AbstractThe purpose of this research was to compare the overwinter survival of populations of Heterodera glycines at different latitudes in the United States and the effect of changing latitudes before and after the initiation of dormancy. Soil samples infested with H. glycines were collected in August or October in 1992 to 1994 from soybean fields in two to four states (combinations of Arkansas, Florida, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin). The samples were mixed thoroughly, divided into subsamples, shipped to an overwinter location, and buried until time for processing. To determine survival, cysts, eggs, and second-stage juveniles were extracted from replicated subsamples and counted each month from December to May. Survival generally was between 50% and 100%, and often was best in the state of origin. In Florida, survival was at the 50 to 100% level in soil from most locations, and in Wisconsin was near 100%. Survival of H. glycines in Arkansas and Missouri varied more than at the other locations. In a separate test, survival in microplots in Arkansas, in a more natural environment than that of buried samples, was 70 to 94% for field isolates from Arkansas, Minnesota, and Missouri and 100% for isolates of races 1, 3, and 14 that had been maintained in a greenhouse for several years. Survival appears to be better than previous tests had indicated. High survival rates require cultivars with high levels of resistance and long-term rotations for management.
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