Seasonal Fluctuations of Soil and Tissue Populations of Ditylenchus dipsaciand Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi in Alfalfa
AbstractPopulation dynamics of A. ritzemabosi and D. dipsaci were studied in two alfalfa fields in Wyoming. Symptomatic stem-bud tissue and root-zone soil from alfalfa plants exhibiting symptoms of D. dipsaci infection were collected at intervals of 3 to 4 weeks. Both nematodes were extracted from stem tissue with the Baermann funnel method and from soil with the sieving and Baermann funnel method. Soil moisture and soil temperature at 5 cm accounted for 64.8% and 61.0%, respectively, of the variability in numbers of both nematodes in soil at the Big Horn field. Also at the Big Horn field, A. ritzemabosi was found in soil on only three of the 14 collection dates, whereas D. dipsaci was found in soil on 12 dates. Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi was found in stem tissue samples on 9 of the 14 sampling dates whereas D. dipsaci was found on all dates. Populations of both nematodes in stem tissue peaked in October, and soil populations of both peaked in January, when soil moisture was greatest. Numbers of D. dipsaci in stem tissue were related to mean air temperature 3 weeks prior to tissue collection, while none of the climatic factors measured were associated with numbers of A. ritzemabosi. At the Dayton field, soil moisture plus soil temperature at 5 cm accounted for 98.2% and 91.4% of the variability in the soil populations of A. ritzemabosi and D. dipsaci, respectively. Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi was extracted from soil at two of the five collection dates, compared to extraction of D. dipsaci at three dates. Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi was collected from stem tissue at six of the seven sampling dates while D. dipsaci was found at all sampling dates. The only environmental factor that was associated with an increase in the numbers of both nematodes in alfalfa stem tissue was total precipitation 1 week prior to sampling, and this occurred only at the Dayton field. Numbers of A. ritzemabosi in stem tissue appeared to be not affected by any of the environmental factors studied, while numbers of D. dipsaci in stem tissue were associated with cumulative monthly precipitation, snow cover at time of sampling, and the mean weekly temperature 3 weeks prior to sampling. Harvesting alfalfa reduced the numbers of A. ritzemabosi at the Big Horn field and both nematodes at the Dayton field.
Copyright and Permissions
All material published by the Society of Nematologists (SON), except for papers prepared by United States and Canadian government employees, is copyrighted and protected under the U.S. copyright law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the term of copyright for materials registered by an organization is 75 years from the date first published. Before publishing any manuscript, SON requires that authors transfer full and complete ownership of any copyright to SON by signing a JON Page Charge/Copyright Form (.pdf). SON then registers the copyright. Subsequent use of published materials requires written permission from the SON and may be obtained by contacting the current Editor-in-Chief and state where and how the material will be used.
The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant. If portions of the article have been published previously, then the author warrants that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder and the author will submit a copy of the permission release with this copyright transfer form.
SON shall claim no proprietary right other than copyright. Authors and coauthors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal noncommercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).