Evaluation of NemX, a New Cultivar of Cotton with High Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita
AbstractThe level of resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in NemX, a new cultivar of the Acala-type upland cotton, was evaluated in relation to four resistant breeding lines (N6072, N8577, N901, and N903) and four susceptible cultivars (Maxxa, SJ2, Royale, and Prema). In growth pouch tests, an average of only 4 nematode egg masses was produced on roots of NemX or the resistant lines, compared to a significantly higher average of 21 on the susceptible cultivars. In pot tests, the nematode reproduction factor (RF = Pf/Pi) in NemX and the resistant lines averaged 0.7, compared to a significantly higher average of 10 on the susceptible cultivars. Root galling in NemX or other resistant cotton averaged 15%, compared to 74% on the susceptible cultivars, in either pot or field tests. In plots with low levels of nematode infestation (Pi = 150 second-stage juveniles [J2]/500 g soil), lint yield of NemX averaged 1,370 kg/ha and was less than the yield of susceptible Maxxa (1,450 k g /h a ). However, in plots with medium or high levels of nematode infestation (Pi = 151-300 or 300 J2/500 g soil, respectively), yields of NemX decreased only slightly and averaged 1,300 or 1,050 kg/ha, respectively, whereas yields of Maxxa were severely reduced to 590 or 503 kg/ha, respectively. Fusarium wih symptoms were observed on both NemX and Maxxa, and percent occurrence increased with increasing preplant nematode density. In plots with the highest nematode densities, 22% of NemX and 65% of Maxxa plants were wilted. NemX was highly effective against five M. incognita isolates and moderately effective against a sixth isolate that had been exposed to resistant cotton over several seasons. These results showed that NemX is as resistant to M. incognita as the four breeding lines, and much more resistant than the tested susceptible cultivars of cotton. Key words: cotton, Fusarium wilt disease complex, Gossypium hirsutum, Meloidogyne incognita, nematode, resistance, root-knot, growth pouch.
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