Seasonal Biochemical Changes in Eggs of Heterodera glycines in Missouri
AbstractChanges in the carbohydrate (glucose, trehalose, and glycogen) and total protein contents of eggs retained within Heterodera glycines cysts were monitored monthly in a field microplot experiment conducted from March 1993 to March 1995. Treatments included two near-isogenic lines of soybean cv. Clark differing for date of maturity, and one corn hybrid. The soybean lines were planted in microplots infested with H. glycines at a high average initial population density (Pi) (23,810 eggs/100 cm³ soil), and the corn was planted in microplots infested at high (24,640) and low (5,485) Pi. Soil temperatures at 15 cm depth and rainfall were monitored. Carbohydrate contents varied in the same pattern, with the highest levels measured before planting (May) and after harvest (October) in both years. Neither Pi nor soybean isoline had an effect on any measured response, but the carbohydrate contents of eggs from corn and soybean microplots differed during the overwinter (October-May) periods (P 0.0001). Trehalose accumulation was negatively correlated with soil temperature (r = -0.78 and r = -0.84, P = 0.0001, July through November 1993 and 1994, respectively), which reflects its role as a cryoprotectant. In contrast to the pattern for carbohydrates, total protein was lowest before planting and after harvest, and highest ( 20 [mu]g/1,000 eggs) June through October. Protein content was unaffected by plant cultivar or species. Protein and carbohydrate levels in H. glycines eggs showed seasonal changes that appeared to be primarily temperature-dependent. Key words: biochemistry, dormancy, Glycine max, hatching, Heterodera glycines, soybean cyst nematode, trehalose.
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