Toxicity of Glucosinolates and Their Enzymatic Decomposition Products to Caenorhabditis elegans
AbstractAn aquatic 24-hour lethality test using Caenorhabditis elegans was used to assess toxicity of glucosinolates and their enzymatic breakdown products. In the absence of the enzyme thioglucosidase (myrosinase), allyl glucosinolate (sinigrin) was found to be nontoxic at all concentrations tested, while a freeze-dried, dialyzed water extract of Crambe abyssinica containing 26% 2-hydroxyl 3-butenyl glucosinolate (epi-progoitrin) had a 50% lethal concentration (LC[sub5][sub0]) of 18.5 g/liter. Addition of the enzyme increased the toxicity (LC[sub5][sub0] value) of sinigrin to 0.5 g/liter, but the enzyme had no effect on the toxicity of the C. abyssinica extract. Allyl isothiocyanate and allyl cyanide, two possible breakdown products of sinigrin, had an LC[sub5][sub0] value of 0.04 g/liter and approximately 3 g/liter, respectively. Liquid chromatographic studies showed that a portion of the sinigrin decomposed into allyl isothiocyanate. The resuhs indicated that allyl isothiocyanate is nearly three orders of magnitude more toxic to C. elegans than the corresponding glncosinolate, suggesting isothiocyanate formation would improve nematode control from application of glucosinolates. Key words: Caenorhabditis elegans, Crambe abyssinica, enzyme, epi-progoitrin, glucosinolate, myrosinase, physiology, sinigrin, thioglucosidase.
Copyright and Permissions
All material published by the Society of Nematologists (SON), except for papers prepared by United States and Canadian government employees, is copyrighted and protected under the U.S. copyright law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the term of copyright for materials registered by an organization is 75 years from the date first published. Before publishing any manuscript, SON requires that authors transfer full and complete ownership of any copyright to SON by signing a JON Page Charge/Copyright Form (.pdf). SON then registers the copyright. Subsequent use of published materials requires written permission from the SON and may be obtained by contacting the current Editor-in-Chief and state where and how the material will be used.
The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant. If portions of the article have been published previously, then the author warrants that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder and the author will submit a copy of the permission release with this copyright transfer form.
SON shall claim no proprietary right other than copyright. Authors and coauthors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal noncommercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).