Effects of Chicken-excrement Amendments on Meloidogyne arenaria
AbstractThe effects of chicken litter on Meloidogyne arenaria in tomato plants cv. Rutgers were determined in the greenhouse. Tomato seedlings were transplanted into a sandy soil amended with five rates of chicken litter and inoculated with 2,000 M. arenaria eggs. After 10 days, total numbers of nematodes in the roots decreased with increasing rates of chicken litter. After 46 days, egg numbers also decreased with increasing litter rates. In another experiment, soil was amended with two litter types, N-P-K fertilizer, and the two primary constituents of chicken litter (manure and pine-shaving bedding). After 10 days, numbers of nematodes in roots were smaller in chicken-excrement treatments as compared to nonexcrement treatments. At 46 days, there were fewer nematode eggs in chicken-excrement treatments compared to nonexcrement treatments. Egg numbers also were smaller for fertilizer and pine-shaving amendments as compared to nonamended controls. Chicken litter and manure amendments suppressed plant growth by 10 days after inoculation but enhanced root weights at 46 days after inoculation. Amendment of soil with chicken litter suppressed M. arenaria and may provide practical control of root-knot nematodes as part of an integrated management system. Key words: amendment, biological control, chicken litter, Lycopersicon esculentum, Meloidogyne arenaria, nematode, penetration, root-knot nematode, tomato.
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