Multiple Pest Interactions in Soybean: Effects on Heterodera glycines Egg Populations and Crop Yield
AbstractPopulation changes of Heterodera glycines eggs on soybean in small field plots were influenced by the lepidopterous insect pest, Helicoverpa zea; however, few effects on eggs due to the presence of annual weeds were detected. Soybeans defoliated 15-35% by H. zea during August remained green and continued to produce new flowers and pods later into the season than soybeans without H. zea, resulting in higher numbers of H. glycines eggs at harvest on insect-defoliated soybeans. Final H. glycines populations also were influenced by soil population density (Pi) of the nematode at planting. Fecundity of H. glycines was generally greater at the undetected and low Pi than at high Pi levels. Soybean yields were suppressed 12, 22, and 30% by low, moderate, and high H. glycines Pi, respectively. When weed competition and H. zea feeding damage effects were added, yields were suppressed 34, 40, and 57% by the three respective nematode Pi levels. Effects among the three pests on soybean yield were primarily additive. Key words: Annual weed, Glycine max, Helicoverpa zea, Heterodera glycines, nematode, pest complex, population dynamics,, soybean, weed, yield.
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