Hermaphroditism in Meloidogyne hapla
AbstractHermaphrodites were detected in diploid and polyploid isolates of population 86-Va of Meloidogyne hapla. Young hermaphrodites are indistinguishable from normal females. Initially, hermaphrodite ovaries are filled with oocytes at various stages of development. Hermaphroditism is expressed later when young oocytes in the early pachytene region of the growth zone suddenly advance to diakinesis and proceed with maturation divisions, resulting in spermatid production. Spermatogenesis may be initiated shortly after the fourth molt, or later, after a female has produced some eggs. Spermatogenesis may occur in one or both gonads, and it may be initiated in one gonad before the other. Once initiated, spermatogenesis continues for the entire reproductive life of the hermaphrodite. Several thousand spermatozoa accumulate in the ovotestis. Because they do not pass through the oviduct into the spermatotheca, they do not take part in reproduction (nonfunctional hermaphroditism). Among the progeny of hermaphrodites, ca. 50% are hermaphroditic, and the remainder are apparently normal females which, however, produce about 50% hermaphroditic progeny. Two temperature regimes (20-23 C and 27-30 C) did not influence the percentage of hermaphrodites among the progeny. Hermaphroditism could not be transmitted to nonhermaphroditic isolates following attempted crosses between males of hermaphroditic and females of nonhermaphroditic isolates. Although this result suggests cytoplasmic rather than nuclear inheritance, this conclusion is not definitive. Key words: cytogenetics, hermaphroditism, Meloidogyne hapla, nematode, reproduction, spermatogenesis.
Copyright and Permissions
All material published by the Society of Nematologists (SON), except for papers prepared by United States and Canadian government employees, is copyrighted and protected under the U.S. copyright law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the term of copyright for materials registered by an organization is 75 years from the date first published. Before publishing any manuscript, SON requires that authors transfer full and complete ownership of any copyright to SON by signing a JON Page Charge/Copyright Form (.pdf). SON then registers the copyright. Subsequent use of published materials requires written permission from the SON and may be obtained by contacting the current Editor-in-Chief and state where and how the material will be used.
The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant. If portions of the article have been published previously, then the author warrants that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder and the author will submit a copy of the permission release with this copyright transfer form.
SON shall claim no proprietary right other than copyright. Authors and coauthors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal noncommercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).