Fitness Components and Selection of Biotypes of Heterodera glycines
AbstractSurvival of biotypes of Heterodera glycines was studied in microplots and in the field. The field population was subjected to various cropping sequences. Viability of eggs overwintered in microplots was determined each spring by percentage hatch, percentage of hatched eggs penetrating roots, and numbers of females developing on Peking and PI 88788 soybeans. Eggs from the field were collected in the spring and fall and assayed for ability to develop on Peking and PI 88788. Hatch of isolates overwintered in the microplots averaged 13% in May 1989 and 19% in 1990. No differences in hatch were detected among the isolates in 1989. Numbers of juveniles penetrating susceptible roots averaged less than 20% of the hatched eggs each year. An isolate of a biotype parasitic on susceptible soybeans and the resistant soybean PI 88788 penetrated roots more successfully than other biotypes. A second isolate from North Carolina, parasitic on susceptible soybeans, PI 88788, and the resistant soybean Peking experienced selection against development on Peking during two winters. Only 17 % of the expected numbers of females developed on Peking from this isolate. In the microplot experiment, parasitism of PI 88788 and Peking had a selective disadvantage (selection coefficient) of s = 0.29 and 0.62 over all isolates, respectively. In the field experiment, the relative numbers of cysts on Peking and PI 88788 increased between the spring and fall on soybean, then decreased over the winter and under corn. Selection coefficients against parasitism of PI 88788 and Peking averaged 0,19 and 0.3 in the field population. In neither experiment did juveniles lose their ability to parasitize susceptible soybeans. Key words: fitness, genetics, Heterodera glycines, nematode, race, selection, soybean cyst nematode, survival.
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